Introduction to Static Var Compensator.pdf

E a grid that is more reliable efficient and

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grid (i.e., a grid that is more reliable, efficient, and responsive than conventional grids). The present manual covers one of the most common of FACTS devices, the static var compensator (commonly abbreviated to SVC ). Figure 4. SVC used for power factor correction in Arkansas, USA (photo courtesy of ABB).
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Introduction – Static Var Compensator (SVC) Discussion of Fundamentals 4 Static Var Compensator (SVC) Introduction to static var compensators (SVCs) Static var compensators (SVCs), which are part of the FACTS device family, consist primarily of capacitors, as well as of a variable reactor (inductor) used for accurate reactive power adjustment. SVCs can be shunt-connected to any system in order to compensate the reactive power requirements of the system. By varying the reactance of the inductor and switching capacitors in and out, SVCs can supply a variable and precise amount of reactive power to the system in order to maintain the quality of the power transferred by the line optimal (i.e., in order to maintain the voltage across the system as close as possible to the nominal value). SVCs are commonly used to maintain the voltage across ac transmission lines constant. When added to an ac transmission line, SVCs, just as shunt-capacitor substations, increase the power transfer capacity of the line. Furthermore, SVCs have a number of advantages over shunt-capacitor substations, most notably: A tighter control of the voltage compensation across the ac transmission line An increased line stability during transients (i.e., during sudden changes in the load at the receiver end of the ac transmission line), due to the capacity of SVCs to rapidly react to load variations Figure 5. SVC substation used for voltage compensation of an ac transmission line near Lübeck, Germany (© Siemens AG 2012, all rights reserved). SVCs are also commonly used for dynamic power factor correction (i.e., dynamic reactive power compensation) in industrial applications operating with large random peaks of reactive power demand (the most common of these applications being plants using arc furnaces). When left unchecked, such peaks in reactive power demand significantly increase the energy costs of an industrial application. This is because most electrical providers not only charge a customer for the amount of active power consumed but also for the amount of reactive It is generally accepted that inductive components ab- sorb reactive power and capacitive components supply reactive power, although reactive compo- nents in fact exchange reactive power and neither absorb nor supply reactive power.
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Introduction – Static Var Compensator (SVC) Discussion of Fundamentals Static Var Compensator (SVC) 5 power exchanged with the ac power network (in some cases, customers can also be billed proportionally to the magnitude of the highest peak of reactive power demand). Other undesirable effects of large random peaks of reactive power demand include voltage fluctuations at the plant input and in the ac power network, as well as a reduction in the productivity of the industrial application.
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