Explain how dilution affects the ph of a buffer as

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Explain how dilution affects the pH of a buffer as well as the buffer capacity. Sketch titration curves for the follow titrations: o strong acid titrated with strong base (note eq point) o weak acid titrated with strong base (note eq point and buffer region) o weak base titrated with strong acid (note eq point and buffer region) Explain why the equivalence point is acidic, basic, or neutral for the above titrations Know how to use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to predict the pH of a buffer solution
Be able to determine the K a of an acid given a titration curve (similar to Section E p3) Know the biological relevance of buffers Expt 15 – Redox Equilibria and Electrochemistry Know the basic electrochemistry terms and be able to apply them to a given cell: voltaic cell, electrolytic cell, anode, cathode, oxidation, reduction, oxidizing agent, reducing agent. Know the signs (+/-) at the anode and cathode for both types of cells. Given the E o cell value for a reaction, be able to calculate the reduction potential for one of the half cells. Also, know how to write a balanced redox equation for the spontaneous reaction between two half cells. Explain (in a few sentences) how we made a lead acid battery in Expt 15 part E.
Understand the relationship between E o cell , K, and spontaneity for a given reaction. Know how to use the Nernst equation to calculate E cell and understand what happens to E cell as concentrations of the ions in solution change (like when a battery “runs down”). Expt 9 – Halogens Be able to balance a redox equation similar to what was seen in Expt 9 and the background If you were given results for experiments similar to Section B, C, and D, be able to explain the color changes of the indicators and identify the cathode, anode, and the redox reaction involved.

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