Factor 2deceptions may be harmless but people are

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Factor 2)Deceptions may be harmless, but people are still not completely informed. -- judgment is made by the propagandist, he target audience is notgiven the full picture from which they might make such an evaluation themselves of what to include and not.Factor 3) propaganda tends to involve, by definition, psychological influences, which bypass rational determination of belief on the part of message receivers. (conscious or subconscious message reception) → means that at some point in a chain of reasoning a hidden, misleading, or otherwise unexamined presupposition will affect the outcome in a way not consciously assessed by the propagandee.Thus, the use of repetition of emotively charged words, slogans, coins, monuments, and other imagery influences people through prestige and contagion, leading to irrational or not fully rational acceptance of another’s power over them. Suggested def: PROPAGANDA = (def.)The organized attempt through communication to affect belief or action or inculcate attitudes in a large audience in ways that circumvent or suppress an individual’s adequately informed, rational, reflective judgment.Ex: For instance, the massive promotion of the McDonald’s fast-food chain inthe United States and Canada under this definition of propaganda. Ex: Naomi Klein has shown how many items are marketed through a “branding” process, which tries to associate the product, through its logo, with a lifestyle or world view, so that the buyer is buying an identity along with the product.-2 Major Propaganda Theorists:Many writers have been preoccupied with the question of individual freedomand the domination of the crowdEllul and Orwell were gravely concerned about the future of the individual in mass-mediated society, and both played an effective role in rallying forces to oppose the threat of monolithic cultureThe major difference between their 2 p.o.v is that Orwell’s orientation is more seculae while Ellull was oriented towards biblical roots.Both thinkers sought to expose the forces at work integrating an individual into a larger system and frustrating an individual’s self-development and freedom.1.George Orwell: -Doublespeak: i.e; EPA said that they should not speak of “acid rain” but referinstead to “poorly buffered precipitation.” The Pentagon once referred to its purchase of “wooden interdental stimulators” instead of “toothpicks”-A deception perpetrated on the public by some official source accomplishes,as we often see, a given objective. It is later found to be a deception, but the
mass media are no longer interested in publicizing the truth, partly because the correction arrives too late to undo the damage caused, partly because exposure of the deception would also incriminate the media as negligent or dupes.

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