2 cultural stagnation and transformation spirtitual

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2) Cultural Stagnation and Transformation: spirtitual paralysis *2 nd Century AD Greco-Roman civilization lost its creative energy *Shift from reason to focus on afterlife.Plotinus (205-270 AD) spokesmen of Neo- Platonism stressed rational interpretation of the human community and called for reform of polis on the basis of knowledge, urged sould to rise to a higher world of reality. Desired a union with the One aka Good or God; which was the source of all existence. Decline of Rome 3 rd Century Crisis: degeneration of army. Lack of quality in soldiers. Generals driven to seize throne. 235-285 AD military mutinty and civlil war raged *Germanic tribesmen crossed the Rhine-Danube and looted and destroyed *new Persian empire led by the Sassanid dystany, attacked Roman lands in the East *Gaul attempted to break away. <Bad economic repercusions 1)cities pillaged 2)farmlands ruined 3)trade disrupted. Diocletian and Constantine: The Regimented State Diocletian (285-305 AD) Constantine (306-337 AD) Had to feed the poor and an army of 500,000 that was disbursed through the empire. Had to prevent military anarchy
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Had to drive Germans back across the Rhine-Danube Secure the East from Persia. *taxes went up, people forced to do labor, less self-government *lack of civic spirit **Individual lives for the states Tribal Migration and Invasions Huns (4 th Century AD) nomadic from Asia came across Russia into Germany and fought the Visigoths which sought protection from the Roman empire. They were treated poorly 378 AD battle at Adrianople, Germans vs Rome, Rome couldn’t defend borders. 410 Visigoths looted Rome Roads disappeared, trade become less. 476 Germans overthrew Rome and Odoacer took the Rome throne. Reasons for Decline: 1) Process that lasted 100s of years 2) Only the western half of the Empire fell, the eastern half survived as the Byzantine empire until the middle of the 15 th Century. 3) No single reason, multiple forces, internal and external. ‘ *Role of Germanic Tribes: weakened borders, forced govt to tax people more to support the army which made the impoverished hate the government. * Spiritual Considerations: *Political and Military Considerations: demands of govt. sapped the initative and civic spirit of citizens. Middle and lower classes withdrew support. Quality of military lessoned. *Economic Considerations: decrease in population, failure to achieve a breakthrough in technology, the heaven burden of taxation, economic decentralization Roman Legacy 1) Idea of world empire united by a common law and effective government has never died. 2) Strengthened the foundations of Western culture by adding/building on the Greek philosophy, literature and science. 3) Latin language lived on for many more years (still exists today) *Western Church wrote in Latin and in the Middle ages it was the language of learning from Latin, we get Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian 4) Roman law influenced church law and formed the basis of the legal codes of most European states 5) Christianity, the core religion of the West was born within the Roman empire and was greatly influenced by Roman law, organization and rulings from Rome.
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