Do this by helping employees find their passions at work and creating exciting organizational vision employees feel connected to. Seeing the connection between their work and the organization’s vision. Needs Non-cyclical climate Clearly identified passions Exciting Visions Relevant Task Purposes Whole Taks Leading for Choice: Do this by empowering employees and delegating meaningful task assignments Needs Delegated authority Trust in workers Security (no punishment) for honest mistakes A clear purpose Information Leading for Competence: Involves supporting and coaching employees. Do this by making sure they have knowledge needed to successfully perform jobs, providing positive feedback, and assigning challenging tasks to fuel employee intrinsic motivation Knowledge Positive Feedback Skill Recognition Challenge High, Noncomparative Standards Leading for Progress Involves monitoring and rewarding others A Collaborative Climate Milestones Celebrations Access To Customers Measurement of Improvement 7
EXTRINSIC REWARDS— Often fail because… 1. Too much emphasis on monetary rewards 2. Rewards lack an “appreciation effect” 3. Extensive benefits become entitlements 4. Counterproductive behavior is rewarded (pizza and reckless driving) 5. Too long a delay between performance and rewards 6. Too many one-size-fits-all rewards 7. Use of one-shot rewards with a short-lived motivational impact 8. Use of demotivating practices like layoffs, across-company cuts/raises, excessive executive compensation ** Pay for Performance**: monetary incentives tied to one’s results or accomplishments • Merit pay, bonuses, profit-sharing incentives for employees to work harder. But pay for performance is something extra, compensation above and beyond basic wages and salaries. Provides more motivation. • Example is the piece-rate plan where employees are paid a specified amount of money for each unit of work. • Something extra – compensation above and beyond basic wages and salaries • May only deal with quantity – not quality Positive Reinforcement (Skinner 0 BEHAVIORISM- only observable behavior) • **Law of Effect**: behavior with favorable consequences is repeated; behavior with unfavorable consequences disappears • **Respondent behavior**: Unlearned stimulus--response reflexes (Ex. Shedding tears when peeling onions and withdrawing one’s hand from hot stove) • **Operant behavior**: Learned, consequence-shaped behavior (Ex. Reinforcing animals with food once they did favorable behaviors) Positive Reinforcement Strengthens Behavior: Making behavior occur more often by contingently presenting something positive (such as praise or recognition). Dog peeing outside instead of on a carpet will receive a treat. - ** positive reinforcement** - making behavior occure more often by contingently presenting something positive - Helps managers achieve needed discipline and desired effect when providing feedback and granting extrinsic rewards Negative Reinforcement also Strengthens Behavior: Making behavior occur more often by contingently withdrawing something negative. Ex. Army sergeant who stops yelling when a
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- Spring '13
- Decision Making