The two while others sadly ended up on downward

Info icon This preview shows pages 50–52. Sign up to view the full content.

the two, while others sadly ended up on downward trajectories that they were unlikely to reverse. All the children, even those in the worst of cir- cumstances, showed great personal resilience and support for parents and siblings. However, many could not overcome the negative social and struc- tural factors that challenged their lives before the storm and that were made much worse in its aftermath. Summary In this chapter, we reviewed social problems that affect children’s lives out- side the family. We examined trends in child poverty and looked at their effects from a global perspective. Although there has been some progress in reducing malnutrition, improving health care, and expanding educational opportunities of children in many countries in the developing world, there also have been setbacks due to uneven economic development and the result- ing austerity programs, which were instituted to address the debt crisis. We looked at how these economic trends have resulted in violence against street children in Brazil, the exploitation of urban child workers in Kenya, and the kidnapping or sale of children to work on farms and in sweatshops in India and Pakistan. One encouraging factor we saw in all these case studies was the emergence of NGOs. These organizations, which are directed by caring adults and children with no government affiliation, promote change and address problems of child poverty and exploitation at the grassroots level. Although the majority of children in Western industrialized countries live in secure economic circumstances and have bright futures, there is still a much-too-high proportion of children living in poverty in the United States and several other industrialized countries. In contrast, most of the other countries in the industrialized world have much lower rates of child poverty and have had reductions in child poverty in recent years. There was a dramatic increase in teenage nonmarital births in the 1980s and early 1990s. The recent, just as dramatic, decrease in such births is a highly positive trend. Yet for most teen mothers, childrearing, most especially in the early teen years and among girls from economically disadvantaged (Continued) Copyright ©2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. This work may not be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without express written permission of the publisher. Draft Proof - Do not copy, post, or distribute
Image of page 50

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

CHAPTER 11: Children, Social Problems, and Society 355 families, almost always worsens their quality of life and limits their futures and those of their children. More research is needed on the effects of teenage childbearing on teen mothers and their children. We do know, however, that many teen mothers and their children who are adversely affected by the early childbearing overcome their problems later in life. Overall, these findings sug- gest a number of programs for combating the problem that are best aimed at specific groups. The programs should be both preventive (providing sex edu-
Image of page 51
Image of page 52
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern