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Criminology Lecture Notes2

Rates of juvenile delinquency across city zones most

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Rates of juvenile delinquency across city zones (MOST IMPORTANT MAP = Chicago with concentric zone) – 1927-1933 series data . Numbers show average delinquency rate in city zones . Delinquency rates decrease from city center outwards (evenly) . Suggests the social and material nature of these areas . South side of Chicago has a reputation of being really bad . See how changes in population correlates with delinquency rates (Shawn and McKay) . Where population is decreasing, you have highest rate of delinquency . Where population is increasing, less delinquency . Lack of cohesive social world produces delinquency . Early 20 th century – massive immigration to America therefore inner city areas are areas of immigrant settlement . Many sociologists saw ethnicity as a problem – people had to be the same for society to work . In these ethnic areas, we see high delinquency – some sociologists concluded that ethnicity was the problem . Areas with higher delinquency rates . White delinquency rates are low, polish/Italian delinquency rates are low – white delinquency rates high, polish/Italian delinquency rates are high nothing is wrong with poles/Italians . The population of ethnic groups in inner-city regions change, but delinquency rates do not change . There’s something about these places, NOT PEOPLE, that produces high delinquency rates no matter who lives there – could be that the environment produces social disorganization . Racial composition of these places also changed . After first few decades of 20 th century – African Americans moved from south to northern areas in search of jobs in inner-city factories . Maybe high delinquency has something to do with race . Black delinquency following same pattern as white delinquency – same social conditions are creating high delinquency rates for black and whites . When blacks move from inner city zones to outer city zones, their delinquency rates drop dramatically . BOTTOM LINE: It’s not about race, it’s about place . Shawn and McKay also considered criminality – chart showing juvenile delinquency and then arrested as an adult . Areas of low to high delinquency rates (outer city to inner city)
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. Same social conditions lead to high rate of delinquency and increases chances that adults will have criminal careers – social conditions cause delinquency and keep people in criminal activity (mostly in inner zones – NOT outer zones) . In outer zones, these delinquent kids straighten up when they grow up . In inner city zones, more unlikely to straighten up . 1945-1951 Female delinquency map . Less female delinquency in outer areas, more in inner areas . These areas are affecting women the same way they affect men . Map of richmond . See higher rates of delinquency in inner city area . Shaw and McKay basically tell us that social problems cluster together in the inner city areas . As you move from inner city areas to the outer zones, see a decrease in juvenile delinquency . ALL CITIES conform to this pattern Lecture 2/27/2012 . Socioecological Criminology: Levels of Community Crime Control .
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