White nevada managed to become a state quickly in

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mattered for territories vying to become states. White Nevada managed to become a state quickly in 1864, while New Mexico and Arizona took until 1912, due to their larger Mexican population. In seeking to join the Union, Arizona’s political leaders touted the fact that, in contrast to New Mexico, theirs would be a white state. As Meeks explains, “Anglos in Arizona honed an argument for an end to territorial status based on the ideas that the majority of residents were white, educated, and civilized and that the indigenous and ethnic Mexican populations would have little role in government.” 348 Following the Civil War most Anglos who ventured to Arizona regarded it as a punishing wasteland, an infernal, Indian-infested desert, a hurdle in the way between Santa Fe and San Diego. “Every bush is full of thorns . . . and every rock you turn over has a tarantula or a centipede under it,” wrote Dr. John S. Griffin. “The fact is, take the country altogether, and I defy any man who has not seen it—or one as utterly worthless—even to imagine anything so barren.” 349 Martha Summerhayes, who accompanied her military officer husband to Arizona in August 1874, wrote, “The wind was like a breath from a furnace; it seemed as though the days would never end.” 350 “You have to realize that nobody lived in Arizona until about the 1870’s,” 351 explains Dr. William White. White is a world traveler, who had spent most of his long life as a professor of 347 Ann E. Patrick, “Markers, Barriers, and Frontiers: Theology in the Borderlands,” in Theology Expanding the Borders, Maria Pilar Aquino and Roberto S. Goizueta, eds. The Annual Publication of the College Theology Society, vol 43 (Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications, 1998), 10. 348 Meeks, Border Citizens, 37. 349 John S. Griffin, cited in, Sheridan, Arizona, 51. 350 Martha Summerhayes, cited in, Lavender, The Southwest, 256. 351 Dr. William White, Personal Interview by author, Scottsdale, AZ, 14 February 2013.
115 economics at the University of California Berkeley, but who is a wealth of information about Arizona history. In his Scottsdale apartment where I interviewed him, he told me that his grandfather had brought Mormons from Utah to Arizona in 1873, where they settled in the ranching country of present-day Safford and Thatcher. Professor White grew up in Clifton, Arizona and lived there until he went off to college. He related how around 1900, Mexicans built the Catholic church in Clifton “with red bricks made by hand and brought by wheel barrow from the bed of Chase Creek. . . .It was beautiful,” he said. “I used to like to go to it. And some Mexican people would drag me to their midnight Mass on Christmas Eve.” 352 Then we talked about the copper mines. He shared that “the Arizona Copper Company [located primarily in Clifton and Morenci] had a policy of paying the Mexicans half of what white workers got.” 353 White described how the first mines in the area came about. “It was a Jewish merchant in Silver City, New Mexico, who heard about copper deposits in Clifton, Arizona and bought the area for $10,000.” 354 This was the beginning of mining in what would be known as the

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