References American Society of Hematology. (2018). Iron-Deficiency Anemia. Retrieved from Agarwal, N. & Prchal, J.T. (2009, January 1). Anemia of Chronic Disease (Anemia of Inflammation). Acta Haematologica 122 (2-3), pp 103-108. doi: 10.1159/000243794 Sun, C.C., Vaja, V, Babitt, J.L., & Lin, H.Y. (2012, April). Targeting the hepcidin–ferroportin axis to develop new treatment strategies for anemia of chronic disease and anemia of inflammation. American Journal of Hematology 87 (4), pp 392-400. doi: 10.1002/ajh.23110 Heather, Thank you for the very informative post. Anemia of chronic inflammation (ACI) is classified as a normocytic-normochromic anemia which is characterized by erythrocytes that are relatively normal in size and hemoglobin content but insufficient in number (Huether &
McCance, 2017). High levels of hepcidin are responsible for ACI (2017). I chose to discuss pernicious anemia in this week’s discussion. Pernicious anemia (PA) is classified as a macrocytic-normochromic anemia characterized by unusually large stem cells in the marrow that mature into erythrocytes that are unusually large in size (macrocytic), thickness, and volume (2017). With PA, the hemoglobin content is normal, as is the case with anemia of chronic inflammation, but ineffective erythrocyte DNA synthesis is commonly cause by deficiencies in vitamin B 12 or folate (2017). ACI is a well-known clinical entity commonly observed in patients with various underlying diseases such as infection, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic kidney disease (Sun et al, 2012). ACI is a frequently diagnosed anemia and portends an independently increased morbidity and poor outcome associated with multiple underlying diseases, especially in the elderly (Joosten & Lioen, 2015). Current treatment is aimed at therapies that target hepcidin (2015). References Huether, S. & McCance, K. (2017a). Understanding Pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Joosten, E. & Lioen, P (2015). Iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic disease in geriatric hospitalized patients: How frequent are comorbidities as an additional explanation for the anemia?. Geriatric Gerontology International 15 (8), 931-935. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12371 Langer, A. L., & Ginzburg, Y. Z. (2017). Role of hepcidin-ferroportin axis in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of anemia of chronic inflammation. Hemodialysis International, 21 (1), S37–S46. Retrieved from - org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1111/hdi.12543 Sun, C., Vaja, V., Banitt, J., Lin, H. (2012). Targeting the hepcidin-ferroportin axis to develop new treatment strategies for anemia of chronic disease and anemia of
inflammation. American Journal of Hematology, 87 (4), 392-400. doi:10.1002/ajh.23110 Main Post Anemia Anemia generally results from blood loss, decreased red blood cell (RBC) production, poor RBC maturation, or increased RBC destruction(Greensburg, 1996). This discussion post will focus on two different types of anemia, iron deficiency anemia and post-hemorrhagic anemia. They will be compared, their causes will be discussed and how the following factors: genetics, gender, age, ethnicity and behavior affect them.
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- Hematology, Hemoglobin