diffuse? replicated?), 2) centrioles, 3) spindle, and 4) nuclear envelope. Know the functions of cell division. Be able to list differences in the mechanics of mitosis between plants and animals, and where mitosis occurs. Does mitosis produce identical daughter cells? how many? identical to the mother cell? What is the G 0 phase? From what phase in the cell cycle would a cell enter G 0 ? How does this relate to the Restriction point and factors that regulate cell division? Be able to describe cancer cells in relation to the cell cycle.
Bio181 Study Guide 29 Chapter 13. Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles A review of topics: 1. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 2. Like begets like, more or less: Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction 3. Fertilization and Meiosis alternate in Sexual Life Cycles 4. Meiosis reduces chromosome number from Diploid to Haploid 5. Sexual Reproduction produces Genetic Variation among offspring 6. Evolutionary Adaptation depends on a Populations Genetic Variation This chapter focuses on three aspects of meiosis: 1) the important role of meiosis in sexual life cycles 2) the mechanics of meiosis, particularly in comparison to mitosis 3) how meiosis generates genetic variability, and the consequences In addition, this chapter introduces many important terms and concepts critical to any discussion of inheritance. Be able to define / describe and use the following terms: gene locus sexual reproduction somatic cell karyotype autosome sex chromosome homologous chromosome diploid haploid gamete fertilization syngamy zygote sexual life cycles alternation of generations synapsis chiasmata crossing over independent assortment tetrad Be able to describe all phases of meiosis. In particular, know when homologous chromosomes pair and divide, and when the sister chromatids divide. How does each stage of meiosis compare to the stages of mitosis? Describe three ways in which the sexual life cycle generates genetic variability. Be able to identify three possible sexual life cycles relative to the acts of meiosis, mitosis and syngamy, e.g. how are multicellular fungi haploid, and multicellular animals diploid? How do plants compare? How can one ‘inherit’ their parents ‘eyes’, yet their parents still have their own eyes? Why is genetic variability necessary for evolution?
Bio181 Study Guide 30 Chapters: 14. Mendel & the Gene Idea A review of topics: 1. Mendel used an Experimental and Quantitative Approach to Genetics 2. The Law of Segregation: Two alleles for a character are packaged into separate gametes 3. The Law of Independent Assortment: Each pair of alleles assort independently 4. Mendelian Inheritance reflects Rules of Probability 5. Recap: Mendel discovered Particulate nature of Genes 6. Relationship between Genotype and Phenotype rarely simple as Mendel’s examples 7. Pedigree analysis: Mendelian patterns in human inheritance 8. Human disorders and Mendelian patterns of human inheritance 9. Technology for Genetic Testing This chapter describes genes and inheritance, primarily at the organismal level. It begins with a