Most sensory reptiles fish some birds shoveler

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MOST SENSORY – reptiles, fish, some birds Shoveler – filaments to suck up water and filter planktons ESOPHAGUS: TRANSPORT OF FOOD Length and storage (crops) Function of crop: 1. Storage, seed storage in esophagus + salivary glands to start enzymatic digestion and detoxify insect toxins 2. Softening 3. Action of food’s enzymes 4. Detoxification STOMACH FUNCTIONS: 1. Storage 2. Softening – usually seeds and fiber materials 3. Sorting 4. Rumination, eructation – undigested material put back to mouth (partly digested food_) 5. Mixing, grinding – reduction of particle size 6. Sterilization – using gastric acid CHICKEN STOMACH Ventriculus (gizzard) – strong, grinding and massaging – muscular Koilin – protective layer Grit- used to reduce particle size SMALL INTESTINE – SIMILAR ACROSS SPECIES Only difference: enzymes produced, absorptive capacity, rate of passage, length and diameter Functions: autoenzymatic digestion (stomach and small intestine) , absorption of nutrients. Limited alloenzymatic digestion AUTOENZYMATIC DIGESTION DIGESTION IN STOMACH AND SMALL INTESTINE Carbohydrates
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- Amylose, amylopectin, glycogen -> amylase-> maltose, isomaltose, oligo -> maltase, isomaltase -> glucose - Chitin -> chitinase -> chitiobiose -> chitobiase -> glucosamine - Sucrose -> sucrose -> glucose, fructose - Lactose -> lactase (in mammals only) -> glucose, galactose - Trehalose (storage disaccharide in insects) -> trehalase -> glucose LIPIDS Trigly lipase Phospholipids phospholipase Esters esterase Waxes lipase sma esterase PROTEINS – pepsin – polypeptides 1. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase Nucleo-protein -> protein hydrolysis -> poly-nucleotides -> ribonuclease-> oligo-nucleotides FAUNIVORES – PROTEIN AND FAT DIGESTION, AMINO ACID AND LIPID FRUGIVORES AND NECTARIVORES – CARBS OMNIVORES, GRANIVORES – EVERYTHING HERBIVORES – PRE-GASTRIC (digest microbes as part of their diet) , POST-GASTRIC (similar to omnivore, jadi habis lewat stomach baru di ferment sama microbes) REGULATION OF ENZYMES 1. Matching the amount released to the nutrient content of meal, trgntung di meal nya ad apa bisa dictate what enzymes are released 2. Shifts the enzymes when foods shift 3. Seasonal regulation to accommodate facultative consumption strategies (change in RNA expression) --- highest omnivores and facultative consumption strategies Lowest – specialist (carnivores, insectivores, frugivores, nectarivores)
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