c Lipids help the body store the energy it needs in the form of fats and oils

C lipids help the body store the energy it needs in

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c) Lipids help the body store the energy it needs in the form of fats and oils. Wax, of the type secreted by honeybees, is another form of lipid. d) Proteins are the workhorses of the body's machinery. Proteins carry out specific functions inside cells, and they act as enzymes to catalyze reactions all over the body. Amylase, lactase and pepsin are all proteins used in digestion e) Proteins are typically large molecules that can be built up from chains of amino acids called polypeptides. f) Nucleic acids are central to the function of living cells. Arranged in a linear sequence within DNA, they code for the structure and function of the body's proteins. Nucleic acids also form RNA, which acts to transmit DNA-based instructions to the cellular machinery. 29. What are each of the biomolecules composed of? polymers of? a) Carbohydrates are composed of Monosaccharide or simple sugars. b) Lipid are composed of Glycerol and Fatty Acids. c) Proteins are composed with Amino acids d) Nucleic acid are composed with Nucleotides (5 Carbon sugar , nitrogen, nitrogen base and phosphate) 30. What is the primary structure of a polypeptide? ANS:- The primary structure of a polypeptide protein determines its secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure of polypeptides and proteins is the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain with reference to the locations of any disulfide bonds. The primary structure may be thought of as a complete description of all the covalent bonding in a polypeptide chain or protein. 31. What is the secondary structure of a polypeptide? ANS:- Secondary structure is the ordered arrangement or conformation of amino acids in localized regions of a polypeptide or protein molecule. Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in stabilizing these folding patterns. The two main secondary structures are the alpha helix and the anti-parallel beta-pleated sheet. There are other periodic conformations, but the α-helix and β-pleated sheet are the most stable. A single polypeptide or protein may contain multiple secondary structures. 32. What is the tertiary structure of a polypeptide? ANS:- The tertiary structure is the structure at which polypeptide chains become functional. At this level, every protein has a specific three-dimensional shape and presents functional groups on its outer surface, allowing it to interact with other molecules, and giving it its unique function. The arrangement is made with the help of chaperones, which move the protein chain around, bringing different groups on the chain closer together in order to help them form bonds. These amino acids interacting are usually far away from each other on the chain. 33. What is the quaternary structure of a polypeptide? ANS:- Quaternary structure is used to describe proteins composed of multiple subunits (multiple polypeptide molecules, each called a 'monomer'). Most proteins with a molecular weight greater than 50,000 consist of two or more noncovalently-linked monomers. The arrangement of the monomers in the three-dimensional protein is
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the quaternary structure. The most common example used to illustrate quaternary structure is the hemoglobin
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