Question 8 A 60-year-old African-American man lives with a number of chronic health problems. Genetic factors are likely to influence his etiology and/or treatment of Response Feedback: The incidence of hypertension is significantly higher among African- Americans than other ethnic groups. As well, African Americans respond to some antihypertensive drugs differently than whites. Question 9 A patient with a variety of chronic health problems is being seen by her nurse practitioner, who is currently reviewing the patient's medication regimen. Which of the patient's medications should prompt the nurse to teach her to avoid drinking grapefruit juice? Response Feedback: Metabolism of many varied drugs such as calcium channel blockers (used to treat hypertension), statins (used to lower blood lipid levels), and antihistamines (used to prevent allergic reactions) is affected by grapefruit juice. Question 10 During a clinic visit, a patient complains of having frequent muscle cramps in her legs. The nurse's assessment reveals that the patient has been taking over-the-counter 1 out of 1 points 1 out of 1 points 0 out of 1 points 1 out of 1 points 1 out of 1 points
laxatives for the past 7 years. The nurse informed the patient that prolonged use of laxatives Response Feedback: Long-term intake of laxatives, antidepressants, and antibiotics has been found to deprive a person of most essential nutrients, such as vitamins. Prolonged use of laxatives is not known to turn urine acidic, cause urinary tract infections, counter the effect of other drugs, or inhibit the biotransformation of drugs. Question 11 A patient has been prescribed 1 mg lorazepam (Ativan) sublingual prior to the scheduled insertion of a peripherally inserted central (PIC) line. How should the nurse direct the patient when administering this medication? Response Feedback: Sublingual tablets are placed under the tongue where they dissolve and are absorbed into the bloodstream. Swallowing the pill may render it less effective, but is not unsafe. It is not recommended to chew and hold sublingual medications nor to hold them in the mouth for length of time. Question 12 Talwin given in combination with Vistaril diminishes the adverse effects of nausea caused by the Talwin. This drug interaction affecting the pharmacodynamics of the Talwin is Response Feedback: An antagonistic drug interaction results in a therapeutic effect that is less than the effect of either drug alone because the second drug either diminishes or cancels the effects of the first drug. An additive effect occurs when two or more “like” drugs are combined and the result is the sum of the drugs' effects. A synergistic effect occurs when two or more “unlike” drugs are used together to produce a combined effect and the outcome is a drug effect greater than either drug's activity alone.
- Summer '15
- Pharmacology, Drug toxicity