IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

Volume of renewable energies connected to the grid

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volume of renewable energies connected to the grid exceeds a certain level such problems will appear and countermeasures will be needed. Ambitious plans with significant incentives for the introduction of renewable energies exist in certain markets (notably in the EU), and it is expected that EES will be a key factor in achieving the targets. For this reason some studies have been done to determine the amount of EES needed to match the planned introduction of renewable energy. 4.2.1 EES market potential estimation for Germany by Fraunhofer Germany is well known as a leading country for the introduction of renewable energies, so a large market for EES is expected. As shown in Figure 4-4, Germany has set a target to increase the share of renewable energy from less than 20 % to around 60 % to 80 % by 2030.
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66 S E C T I O N 4 Forecast of EES market potential by 2030 To achieve the German target more EES capacity is necessary: Figure 4-5 shows a scenario for wind production in the Vattenfall grid in 2030 which is estimated to be four times higher than today. The blue curve, representing wind power, shows a massive fluctuation resulting in huge amounts of energy which will need to be charged and discharged, while the red curve displays the actual load. The light blue field indicates the storage capacity in Germany in pumped hydro (40 GWh, 7 GW), which represents 95 % of total energy storage today [den10], and is totally inadequate for the quantity of energy which will need to be stored (area under the purple curve). Figure 4-6 shows the estimation of required EES capacity by time range to handle the integration of renewable energies in the past and future [ste11]. For both short-term and long-term needs a very large amount of EES will be needed to deliver peak power. In 2030 the following capacities are necessary (peak power multiplied by time): Hourly: 16 GWh Daily: 170 GWh Weekly: 3.2 TWh Monthly: 5 TWh Total: ~8.4 TWh The present installed storage capacity of 40 GWh PHS can cover only the hourly demand and a part of the daily demand. To cover the additional hourly and daily demand electrochemical EES such as batteries can be used. For the weekly and monthly demand, CAES, H 2 and SNG storage technologies are expected. Figure 4-4 – Expected penetration of renewable energy in Germany [ste11]
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67 Figure 4-5 – Load curve (red) and wind power (blue) in the Vattenfall grid (north-east Germany): charge and discharge volume in 2030 in comparison with pumped hydro storage capacity [alb10] Figure 4-6 – Distribution of required peak power for integration of renewables by time [ste11]
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68 S E C T I O N 4 Forecast of EES market potential by 2030 4.2.2 Storage of large amounts of energy in gas grids For the storage of large amounts of energy electrochemical EES would be too expensive and require too much space. An alternative is the transformation of electricity into hydrogen or synthetic methane gas for storage and distribution within the existing natural gas grid (see sections 2.4.1 and 2.4.2). The efficiency of full-cycle
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