Measured through formal education requires an initial

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measured through formal education requires an initial investment (by whom?) significant differences by racial and ethnic groups Group DifferencesWhites and Asian Americans (in general) oHighest grades and test scores oLeast likely to drop out oMost prestigious degrees Native Americans, Blacks, and Hispanics lag significantly behind Possible explanations? Differences in Educational Attainment
oHigh School Diploma Whites and Blacks are almost at 100% Hispanics have a higher drop out rate than both whites and blacks Some Hispanics don’t speak English, or don’t speak it very wellrecent immigrants Percent of people 25+ who completed 4+ years of college Proportion of Whites who have completed 4+ years of college are increasing each year Percentage of Blacks who have completed 4+ years of college are increasing as well, but at a different rate than Whites Percentage of Hispanics who have completed 4+ years of college are increasing, but are at much lower levels than both Whites and Blacks 30 years behind whites!!! There are still huge educational gaps among Whites, Blacks and Hispanics6% of Hispanic kindergarteners are expected to get a Bachelors degree!!! Sources of Education InequalityFamily Background oParents’ education oFamily income oFamily Structure Neighborhood Genetic inheritance (interaction effects) Roles of the School oSchool quality (residential segregation) oTeacher expectations oTracking (different levels of curricula) Minorities are overrepresented in lower-level tracking and special education classes oSummer learning
Higher income students have more advantages and opportunities Black-White Test Score GapBlack children arrive in kindergarten with fewer skills than whites Do schools help to close this gap? The test score gap is either constant or grows wider Are disadvantaged students with high test scores likely to apply to college? The lower your parents’ education is, the less likely you are to apply to college Disadvantaged students that stay and score will in school are still less likely to go to college! oBlacks oHispanics Responses to Educational InequalityHead Start prepares preschool children from disadvantaged backgrounds Busing attempts to diversify schools by busing students within and across school districts Rezoning attempts to diversify schools by redefining school/district boundaries Bilingual and multicultural education wide variation in programs and quality; results are mixed Affirmative action Model Minority ThesisSome minorities successful Attributed to hard work and support from families, schools, and communities We can lean from theses exceptions But exceptions do not prove the rule oIncome gaps at all educational levels oSome Asian groups struggle Lots of intervention needed.
3/10/2009 1:00:00 PMLast Time:There is a significant racial/ethnic gap in education This gap exists at all levels of education This gap has not decreased over time There are many possible explanations for the continued

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