A series of steps followed to solve problems

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a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis and stating conclusions - Hypothesis = a key part of the scientific method* Segregation of Alleles: as chromosomes separate into different gametes during meiosis, the two different alleles for a particular gene also segregate so that each gamete acquires one of two alleles - Segregation = refers to the distribution of alleles into gametes*
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Sex Cell: an egg or sperm cell (gamete); cell carries half the number of chromosomes found in other body cells - Gametic = sex cell Sex Linkage: a gene located on either side sex chromosome; most sex linked genes are on the X chromosome and show distinctive patters of inheritance; very few genes on the Y chromosome - Presence of a gene on a sex chromosome - Sex linkage = hemophilia* Somatic Cell: any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg or their precursors - Somatic cell = body cells - Are diploid* - Reproduce via Mitosis* Sulfhydryl group: chemical group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom(-SH) - Polar - Similar to hydroxyl Testosterone: a steroid hormone required for development of the male reproductive system, spermatogenesis, and male secondary sex characteristics - Functions inside a cell by binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes* - Testosterone an example of an autocrine signal, a paracrine signal, and an endocrine signal Transcription: synthesis of RNA using a DNA template - Process of DNA – pre-mRNA - Terminator = sequence of DNA at the 3’ end of a gene that codes for end of transcription - Transcription unit = region of RNA that is being actively transcribed - Transcription factor = proteins that bind to DNA to help with transcription o Control which genes are turned on to form mRNA o Helps control gene expression - Control element = sequence of DNA to which transcription factors bind, either near to or far from the promotor Translation: the synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule; change of language from nucleotides to amino acids - Decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain - Required tRNA* - Does not occur in the nucleus* - Process of mature mRNA – protein
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- Initiation Factor = proteins that bind to mRNA to initiate translation - Release factor = proteins that bind to ribosome to stop translation tRNA: RNA molecule that functions as a translator between nucleic acid and protein languages by carrying specific amino acids to the ribosome, where they recognize the appropriate codons in the mRNA - Carries amino acids to the ribosome - Anticodon = region of tRNA responsible for recognizing codon - E site = tRNA exits here - A site = tRNA enters here with amino acid attached Uracil: a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA and derived from pyrimidine - Replace thymine in RNA X chromosome: sex chromosome found in both men and woman; females have 2 and males have 1 - X-inactivation = in females, allows correct expression level of genes on X chromosome
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