Issues claims of equalityus ideologyreform

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Issues: claims of equality/U.S. ideology/reform power/limited success/internal division Seneca Falls: Lucretia Mott/Elizabeth Cady Stanton/Declaration of Sentiments Abolition: long history (e.g. Constitution/colonization)/waxing & waning interest Total abolition revived by William Lloyd Garrison: founded Liberator 1831 Contentious: used slave viewpoint/immediate abolition/southern fear/popular Garrison’s popularity 1833 American Antislavery Society grew rapidly Abolition support grows: Frederick Douglass ( North Star) /southern backlash Free blacks staunchly support abolition: radical/peaceful/militant/Sojourner Truth
Abolitionists divided: extreme v. moderates/Garrison vs. Douglas/women’s role 1840 antislavery sentiment helped form the Liberty Party: advocated "free soil" 1851-2 Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom’s Cabin more support: debate growing America shift new cultural representations: Romanticism/utopian groups/literature New art: transcendental (Romantic) inspired/Emerson’s “Nature” 1836 & “Self Reliance” 1841 Thoreau: reject society/"lives of quiet desperation”/civil disobedience Transcendentalism utopias: Owen's 1825 New Harmony/Ripley's 1841 Brook Farm Oneida Community attempt redefine sex roles: stop confinement to sexual needs Other groups: shakers/Joseph Smith's LDS/millennialism Founded 1830, Smith’s LDS Church searched for settlement issues & success Issues & success: Smith killed/Brigham Young/Salt Lake City/good structure Early American literature = English tones: Sir Walter Scott/Washington Irving First great American novelist = James Fennimore Cooper: noble savage/wilderness Others: Walt Whitman (freedom/individual/pleasure)/Hawthorne (Scarlet Letter) American Gothic: Melville (Gothic/Baroque)/Poe (short stories/psychological) New literature focused on American themes: individuality/spirituality/freedom/regional Cultivation of tobacco & rice continue in the south transition to wheat rise of King Cotton
Initial issues with cotton: long-staple cotton vs. short-staple cotton/difficult to refine Cotton gin short-staple cotton boom need for more land expansion in black belt 1850 cotton = keystone of southern econ.: 2/3 of US exports by 1860/slave dependence Southern econ.: little industry/factor system/rudimentary banking/improvement blocked Some attempts at diversify/industrialize: foundry/James B. D. De Bow/failure Cotton expansion issues: natives/spread of slavery/slave debate/racism/paternalism Slavery changes: trade restrictions/natural increase/internal trade/ “2 nd middle passage” Trade & smuggling did run into actual slave resistance: slave Amistad 1839 Growth of slavery/plantations unique southern culture & class system Features: cavalier image/self-defeating economy/“southern belle”/planters vs. yeomen Do people hold views against their own interest today? Why?

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