abilities of the human race (cognitive type of human relationship to the world). What should I do? - In other words, what should I do in order to be a man and live with dignity (a practical type of attitude of a person to the world). What do I dare to hope for? - This is a question of values and ideals (the value type of a person’s attitude to the world).68. Two main trends in philosophy.Depending on the decision of the first side of the main issue of philosophy (ontological), thinkers were divided into two main groups, namely materialists and idealists. Materialists believe that the beginning of the world is the material beginning, matter. Idealists, respectively, think differently. According to them, spiritual, ideal, not perceived by the senses, consciousness is the beginning of the world. That is, first the ideal, and then the material world. The main historical forms of materialism are: a) the naive materialism of the early Greeks. Their philosophy is also called natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature. Representatives of this form of materialism include Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus and others; b) mechanistic or metaphysical materialism of the New time. Representatives of this form are F. Bacon, J. Locke, T. Gobbs, I. Newton and others; c) the anthropological materialism of L. Feuerbach; d) the dialectical and historical materialism of Karl Marx and F. Engels. The main forms of idealism are subjective and objective. The essence of subjective idealism is that the existence of something or someone depends on human perceptions. At the same time, subjective idealists do not deny the materiality of things, objects, etc. They object only to their real existence, independent of our perceptions.69. How does philosophy connected with culture?
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Philosophical analysis not only studies culture, but also gives its own understanding of culture. Philosophical understanding of culture is often original, opens up new perspectives and opportunities for understanding the cultural reality of man. Only from a philosophical point of view, the understanding of culture occurs in integrity, in the whole variety of ways of its existence. Philosophy allows you to see the most fundamental bases of culture. Philosophy poses a number of problems for culture that are extremelysignificant in the social world. Such are, for example, ontological problems: questions about the meaning of culture in the perspective of human existence,about the conditions of its existence, about the structure of culture, the reasons for its changes and their general vector of development. In relation to a person, the philosophy of culture raises the question of what is the specificity of its cultural activities. The philosophy of culture explores the fundamental problems, the relationship between culture and nature, culture and creativity.70. What is the difference between eastern and western philosophy?Philosophy is a system of views on the world, on our place in it. Ultimately, the mission of philosophy is to understand what true happiness is and how to achieve it. There are two types of philosophy. One is called orthodox, and the other is orthopractice. Western philosophy is orthodox. "Orthodox" literally means the right doctrine. The essence of Western philosophy is that happiness
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