was cheaper than development involving flows of capital and
industrial development. 3. Development at the level of ideas, of
research, extension, education, and so on was not
“threatening;” it would not produce the dangers of revolution
and counterrevolution implicit in efforts to change the relation
of power groups to effectuate land reform.
Everett Rogers, a rural sociologist; David McClelland, a
social psychologist; and Everett Hagen, an economist provided
highly influential contributions
Rogers: leader of the movement to sort
out peasant mentalities into those that are
prodevelopment and those that are noninnovative and
The crucial notion was the idea of diffusion of
rationality into rural non-European communities.
McClelland: claimed that non-Western peoples in
general have not modernized because they lack the
proper “need-achievement” motivation. (Theory:
peasants are unwilling to change- therefore oppressive
of innovative children)
Even in Geography, Robert Sack, (Eurocentric
theory) – most non-Western people (primitives and
most peasants) cannot think in spatial terms the way
modern Western adults can. Ex: cannot cope with
natural disasters like drought and hurricane.
Blaut isn’t suggesting that non-Western
nonrationality is fully hegemonic in modern scholarship
but rather, that in general the doctrine still remains
dominant (except in Anthropology and Economics)
Rationality and the European Miracle:
European rationality is often called “Weberian,” because Max
Weber made important use of the idea in various explanations for
European social evolution and various negative judgments about the
lesser rationality of other societies.