# These pages provide you with the standards that are

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These pages provide you with the standards that are taught in this book and are required learning for the state of California. STANDARD SET 1. Motion Completed 1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.a. Students know position is defined in relation to some choice of a standard reference point and a set of reference directions. 1.b. Students know that average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary. 1.c. Students know how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed. 1.d. Students know the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of the object. 1.e. Students know changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both. 1.f. Students know how to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction. STANDARD SET 2. Forces 2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. As a basis for understanding this concept: 2.a. Students know a force has both direction and magnitude. 2.b. Students know when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces. 2.c. Students know when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change. 2.d. Students know how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction. 2.e. Students know that when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction). 2.f. Students know the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion. 2.g. Students know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system. California Standards

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California Standards 385 STANDARD SET 3. Structure of Matter Completed 3. Each of the more than 100 elements of matter has distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements. As a basis for understanding this concept: 3.a. Students know the structure of the atom and know it is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. 3.b. Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements. 3.c. Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers. 3.d. Students know the states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) depend on molecular motion.
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