However the strength of a logician does not lie in

Info icon This preview shows pages 19–21. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
its premises. However, the strength of a logician does not lie in the ability to establish the truth of propositions because the competent and reliable authority to establish such truth is the respective or relevant scholar who may be a sociologist, chemist etc. The competence, authority and strength of a logician rests in the ability to evaluate the logical relations that exist or at least claimed to exist between or among propositions. It is in this latter or second context that logicians lack of fallacies. There are, broadly speaking two kinds of fallacies; formal and informal fallacies. The bottom- line of the distinction between formal and informal fallacies. The bottom-line of the distinction between formal and informal fallacies lies in the method of detecting the fallacy. If it is identifiable through mere inspection of the form of the argument, then it is formal. If, however, it is only identifiable throught analysis of the content of the argument, then it is informal. However, the fact that an argument is fallacious does not at all mean that its conclusion is false. 8.3.1 FORMAL FALLACIES Formal fallacies arise from error or defect in the structure or form of an argument. They are fallacies identified on the basis of the evaluation of the form or structure of an argument i.e. arise from formal error in argument. A formal fallacy is therefore to a great extent an error in deductive reasoning. In this case, the conclusion asserted does not follow of logical necessity such that despite the premises being true, the truth of the conclusion is not guaranteed from the logical view-point. This is a case of an invalid instance of reasoning, an invalid argument. In other words, when an argument which has the form of a syllogism seems valid, but is not, it is said to be fallacious. A syllogism is a two premised argument. There are five rules for determing the validity/invalidity of a syllogistic argument and a violation of any of the fine rules results into committing a fallacy. These rules are as follows: Rule (1) In any valid categorical syllogism the middle term must be distributed at least one. No pries is corrupt Some priests are policemen -Some policemen are not corrupt. In the above example, the term 'priest' acts as a middle term in that by virtue of it a relationship or logical connection is established between the major and minor terms, in this case 'corrupt' people and 'policemen'. On the basis of an established link between the minor and major terms by the asserted relationship or link between the major terms the middle term and the minor term and the middle term, the implied relationship between the major and minor terms can be asserted in the conclusion. On other words, when reference is not made to all the members of the middle term either in the inclusive or exclusive sense, it
Image of page 19

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
becomes logically impossible to ascertain how the major and minor terms related to each other which means that inference becomes logically impossible. A violation of this rule
Image of page 20
Image of page 21
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern