e.iii.2.b.Sometimes the gland doesn’t get destroyed in which a goiter can develop e.iii.2.b.i.When thyroid gland is destroyed there is much thyroid hormone left over and thus goiter forms
f.The C Cells of the Thyroid Gland f.i.Calcitonin f.i.1.Decreasing blood calcium levels 8.The Parathyroid Glands a.Major cells a.i.Chief cells a.i.1.Secretes parathyroid hormone a.i.1.a.Increases blood calcium levels a.i.1.b.Oxyphils a.i.1.b.i.Function is unknown a.i.1.b.ii.Inactive chief cells 9.The Adrenal Glands a.AKA suprarenal gland b.3 layers of endocrine cells b.i.Produce corticosteroids b.ii.Zona glomerulosa – stimulated angiotensin II b.ii.1.Mineraliocorticoid b.ii.1.a.Aldosterone b.ii.1.a.i.Causes the reabsorption of water b.ii.1.a.ii.ADH goes to the kidney, and tells it to express more aquaporin, kidney absorbs more salt and thuswater follows it. b.ii.1.a.iii.Aldosterone absorbs more salt and ADH puts more aquaporin in the cells of the kidney b.iii.Zona fasciculate b.iii.1.Glucocorticoid b.iii.1.a.Affects glucose metabolism b.iii.1.b.Inflammatory response
b.iii.1.b.i.What inhibits the production of histomin? b.iii.1.b.i.1.Cortisol b.iv.Zona reticularis b.iv.1.Androgens b.iv.1.a.Produces Testosterone b.iv.1.b.They have weak masculinizing effects b.iv.1.c.The only place where female gets testosterone is inthe zona reticularis c.The Adrenal Medulla c.i.Contains chromaffin cells – secrete E and NE from adrenal medulla c.i.1.Modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons 10. The Pineal Gland a.Secretes hormone for our circadian rhythms a.i.Circadian rhythms a.i.1.Our bodily cycles a.i.1.a.Sleep cycles, period cycles, mood cycles b.Secretes melatonin b.i.It induces sleep b.ii.When its dark, melatonin production is high 11. The Pancreas a.99.9% exocrine b.Digestion comes from pancreas c.The Pancreatic Islets c.i.Cells secrete insulin c.ii.Exocrine tissue c.iii.Alpha cells c.iii.1.Secrete glucagon
c.iii.1.a.Antagonist to cortisol (cortisol mobilize glucose to the blood, cortisol will tell liver to release glucose, cortisol will also tell liver to make glucose with glyconeogenesis) c.iii.1.b.Increases blood glucose levels c.iv.Beta cells c.iv.1.Secrete insulin c.iv.1.a.Decreases blood glucose levels c.iv.2.Glucagon stimulates beta cells c.v.Delta cells c.v.1.Secrete Somatostatin c.v.1.a.Regulatory hormone that inhibits insulin and glucagon c.vi.F cells c.vi.1.Secrete pancreatic c.vi.1.a.Modulate the activity of the estergen cells in the exocrine pancreas GLP-1 – stimulates Beta cells to produce glucagon cells d.Diabetes Mellitus d.i.Means sweet urine d.i.1.Spits glucose in your urine d.i.2.There should be no glucose in your urine d.ii.Type 1 d.ii.1.Insulin dependent/juvenile diabetes d.ii.1.a.You need insulin therapy to correct this disease d.ii.1.b.Juvenile because it develops early in life d.ii.2.Auto immune disease
d.ii.2.a.Immune cells look at beta cells and they destroy them d.ii.2.b.No production of insulin thus insulin therapy is required (injection of insulin) d.ii.2.c.
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