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•wilfred and Neville shute (1930’s and 40s)-said you need vitamin D to prevent heart disease-this was only observational•since then:-proper trials have been done for cancer and heart disease-no significant effect that has been noted for either-conclusion: in patients with vascular disease or diabetes mellitus, long-term vitamin E supplementation does not prevent cancer or major cardiovascular events and may increase the risk of heart failure•bottom line: there is little clinical research showing that vitamin E supplements are beneficial-most clinical trials have yielded negative or inconclusive results-you can get vitamin E in plant sources-deficiency in a balanced diet in NA is unlikely-400 IU may be more than neededVITAMIN K•not one single compound-vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins the human body requires for synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K via Danish for Koagulation) and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues-prothrombin is a protein involved in blood clotting and doesn’t work unless activated with the aid ofvitamin K
-so is osteocalcin, a protein that plays a role in incorporating calcium in bones (osteoporotic fractures have been linked with low blood levels of vitamin K)-if osteocalcin is not properly activated by vitamin K, the calcium that it should be delivering to the bones ends up floating around the bloodstream and contributes to calcification, or hardening of arteries•how much vitamin K do we need?:-2-3 micrograms a day-safe at larger doses even up to 1000 micrograms•concern for anyone who takes blood thinners:-vitamin K would counteract blood thinners, it is used to treat an overdose of “Coumadin” (blood thinner)-Coumadin is used for blood clots, mini strokes (found in plant foods: kale, broccoli)VIDEO 5 - VITAMIN C•most animals can make their own vitamin C:-Except for: red vented bulbul, guinea pig, fruit eating bat, humans•what happens when you lack Vitamin C:-Scurvy: various manifestations (gums bleed, sores on body, can result in death)-Happened on ocean voyages – all they ate was biscuits and meat, no fruits or vegatbles•when Jacques Cartier came on his voyage all his men were inflicted with scurvy-Jacques had a discussion with the natives about the disease and they had a solution, when they used certain parts of plants to make tea it would prevent the disease-Cartier didn’t put it into practice•James Lind-Ships physician: very acquainted with scurvy-Thought it was dietary connection-Performed the first real controlled trial: used all the sailors•Captain James Cook:-Discovered sauerkraut prevented scurvy•wasn’t until 1795 the British navy began to provide a daily supply of lime or lemon juice-Given a ration of rum and lime juice each day until the 20th century-Why british sailors are called limeys•Albert Szent-Gyorgyi-Isolated “antiscorbutic factor” in 1927-