• No. They can only assess what they can observe (weight, lengths of toes, etc.). None of these measures provides any useful prediction of intelligence scores at much later ages. Around what age do IQ tests become stable and predictive of later intelligence? • IQ tests become really reliable at age 7. Start becoming somewhat reliable at age 4, but only really reliable at 7. What is giftedness? How is it related to life success and distinction? • High extreme of intelligence. IQ scores over 135. Children with extraordinary academic gifts are sometimes more isolated, introverted, and in their own worlds but many thrive. Children have differing gifts. Many grow on to thrive in life success. What criteria must one meet to be diagnosed with mental retardation? • IQ: 70 or below. • Difficulty with communication and living skills.
• Child must have a low-test score as well as difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent living. What evidence suggests a genetic role in intelligence? • People who share the same genes also share comparable mental abilities. Genes and environment work together. • Evidence: • Identical Twins: Intelligence test scores are virtually as similar as those of the same person taking the same test twice. Brain scans reveal that identical twins have very similar gray matter volume, and that their brains are virtually the same in areas associated with verbal and spatial intelligence. Fraternal twin scores not as similar. • Interaction of Heredity and Environment: Often push in same direction. By what means do heredity and environment tend to influence intelligence in the same direction? (i.e., parents – genes and environment) • Often push in same direction. Genetic influences become more apparent as we accumulate life experience. Adopted children’s intelligence scores over time become more like those of their biological parents. Genetic influence will increase while environmental influence will decrease-both work toward an individuals intelligence being more influential. What evidence indicates an environmental role in intelligence? • Fraternal Twins vs. Siblings: Fraternal twins, who are genetically no more alike than any other siblings, but who are treated more alike because they are the same age, tend to score more alike than other siblings. • Identical Twins Raised Together vs. Apart: Raised together; almost exact same score. Raised apart; about 70% of score variation. Similar enough. Separated twin environment affects both. Genes and environment work together. • Adoption: Adoption enhances the intelligence scores of mistreated or neglected children. Why can’t group differences in average IQ scores be assumed to be due to genetic differences? • Even if the variation between members within a group reflects genetic differences, the average difference between groups may be wholly due to the environment. (Flower experiment).
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- Fall '11
- Developmental Psychology, Intelligence quotient, average iq, IQ tests, average IQ scores