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According to this theory individuals imitate the

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-according to this theory, individuals imitate the behavior of other individuals based onthe degree of their association with other individuals and it is inferior or weak who tend toimitate the superior and strong.c.Adolphe Quetelet and Andre Michael Guerry- He repudiated the free will doctrine of the classicists- founder ofcartographic school of criminology.- founder of moral statistics.- cartographic school of criminology made use of statistical data such as population,age, gender, occupation, religious affiliations and social economic status and studiestheir influences and relationship to criminality.
Sociology of Crimes and Ethics7MODERN SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME CAUSATION-environmental factors such as the kind of rearing or family upbringing, quality of teaching in school,influences of peers and friends, conditions of the neighborhood, and economic and other societalfactors are believed to be contributory to crime and criminal behavior.1.SOCIAL STRUCTURE THEORIES-refers not only to the physical features of the communities but also to the way society is organized.-include such things as level of poverty and unemployment and the amount of crowded housingwhich are believed to affect behavior and attitudes of individuals which in turn contribute to theircommission of crimes.-also calledsocial environment-includessocial disorganization theory, strain theory and cultural deviance theory.a.Social Disorganization Theory-popularized by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay.-according to this theory, crimes in urban areas are more prevalent because residents haveimpersonal relationships with each other.-increase in the number of broken families and single parenthood are also very common indisorganized communities.-another feature of disorganized community is poverty as evidenced by poor living conditionssuch as rundown houses, unsanitary and unsightly streets and high unemployment rates.b.Strain Theory-strain refers the individual’s frustration, anger and resentment.-holds that crime is a function of the conflict between the goals people have and the means theycan use to legally obtain them. This also argues that the ability to obtain these goals is classdependent; members of the lower class are unable to achieve these goals which come easily tothose belonging to the upper class. Consequently, they feel anger, frustration and resentment,referred to as STRAIN.c.Cultural Deviance Theory-gives emphasis on the concept of culture and sub-culture.-according to this theory, because people in the lower class feel isolated due to extremedeprivation or poverty, they tend to create a sub-culture with its own set of rules and values.This is characterized by deviant behavior which results in criminal behavior among itsmembers.

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