Negative insensitivity to pain damaging to organs

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Negative: insensitivity to pain, damaging to organs (long term), lower mood, drowsiness, interferes with cognitive functions, overdose Ex. Alcohol, tranquilizers, barbiturates (for assisted suicide in animals), many inhalants 3. Opiates: used for pain relief (analgesia) Positive: pain relief, euphoria, decrease anxiety Negative: drowsiness, dependency/addictive, overdose, depress vital functions (if in excess), constipation From the opium poppy seed (milk inside) Ex. Morphine, opium, heroin, oxycodone, fentanyl 4. Psychedelic Drugs: distorts perception of consciousness; profound distortion in sensory and perceptual experience, including hallucinations (especially visual) Positive: experience alteration of consciousness, ‘trip’, exhilaration, interesting experiences, insight Negative: ‘trip’, psychosis, paranoia, panic Also known as hallucinogens Ex. Psilocybin mushrooms, LSD, peyote cactus 5. Cannabis: Positive: many of the same effects as other classes of drugs Negative: anxiety, paranoia, impaired concentration and memory Cannot die by overdose Ex. Sativa (more stimulating), marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil, drinkables and edibles How Drugs Interfere with Neurotransmitters - Agonist: mimics the action of a neurotransmitter - Antagonist: Inhibits the action of a neurotransmitter, often by blocking receptor sites - Can also prevent reuptake (agonistic effect) or deactivation (antagonistic effect), so that more of the neurotransmitter stays in the synaptic cleft longer Ex. Cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine; chronic use of cocaine can create serious damage in receptors Factors that Influence How Drugs Affect a Person 1. Environmental setting;
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2. Societal attitudes/ideas towards the drug 3. Metabolism/bodyweight 4. Physical tolerance 5. State of emotional arousal 6. Previous experience with the drug/expectations about drug effects Medical Applications 1. Cocaine: toothaches, lethargy 2. Heroin: cough suppressant, diarrhea 3. Cannabis: nausea 4. LSD: mood disorders 5. Tranquilizers: insomnia Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception Sensation - Occurs in our sensory organs: skin, eyes, ears, mouth, etc. - Occurs when we detect the physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects - Without sensations, we would not have perception Senses and Transduced Energy - Vision/Sight: located in the eyes; transduces radiant energy (light waves - Audition/Hearing: located in the ears; transduces mechanical energy (soundwaves; rhythmic changes in air pressure) - Equilibrioception: located in the ears; transduces mechanical energy (changes in the level of fluid in the inner ear) - Gustation/Taste: located in the tongue; transduces in a molecular shape - Olfaction/Smell: located in the nose; transduces in a molecular shape - Touch: located in the skin and internal organs; transduces mechanical energy (pressure) - Before any kind of life existed on earth, there was electromagnetic energy, or light, most of it coming from the sun.
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