There is an ad verecundiam fallacy here because event though Prof. Otakpor is known as a good professor of Philosophy , there is serious doubt whether he is an expert in human physiology. And, there are many cases of this nature particularly in advertising. Another difficulty in detecting ad verecundian occurs when a well – known expert in one field is cited as an expert in another field even if he or she lacks expertise in it. This kind of fallacy easily occurs when the two fields are related. iv) False cause fallacy There are many forms of false cause fallacy. But the most common form is called in Latin post hoc, ergopropter hoc, which means “after this, therefore because of this”. Generally, a false cause fallacy occurs when the arguer illegitimately assumes a possible cause of a phenomenon to be the only cause although reasons are lacking for excluding other possible causes. Here is an example: Since I came into office 2 years ago, the rate of violent crime has decreased significantly. So, it is clear that the longer prison sentences we recommended are working (Layman, 2000: 151). There is false cause because the longer prison sentences may be a causal factor, but the simple fact that the longer sentences preceded the decrease in violent crime does not prove this. There is no doubt that other causal factors need to be considered. You should also remember that it is not every false cause fallacy that involves the unwarranted assumption that if X precedes Y, then X causes Y. Slippery Slope This is a special variety of false cause. This fallacy occurs when “the arguer assumes that a chain reaction on will occur but there is insufficient evidence that one (or more) events in the chain will cause the others” (Layman, 2000:153). It is clear from the above example that gambling is not a risk-free practice. But there is no logical cause or sufficient evidence to show that buying a lottery ticket will cause you to die homeless and lonely. This is simply a slippery slope fallacy. This fallacy has a unique quality in the sense that it most of the time plays on our deepest fears. It is on record that during the Vietnam War, most people frequently claimed that “If Vietnam fell to communism, a chain reaction would occur, with the result that many countries would come under communist rule” (Layman, 2000: 153).But history shows that there is no solid evidence that such a chain reaction would have occurred. Indeed, many Americans feared that it would. And, this was simply a slippery slope fallacy.
v) Complex Question In logic, a question is complex when the questioner presupposes some conclusion alluded to in the question. Here are typical examples of complex questions: a) Have you stopped beating your wife? b) Why is physics so boring? These questions contain the fallacy of complex question. In (a) for instance, the questioner has already presupposed that you used to beat up your wife. In (b) he assumes that physics is uninteresting/ boring.
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