x Benchmarks an instrument designed to measure the factors that are important

X benchmarks an instrument designed to measure the

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x Benchmarks = an instrument designed to measure the factors that are important to managerial success. x Performance appraisal = the process through which an organization gets information on how well an employee is doing his or her job. A recent trend in performance appraisals for management development is the use of upward feedback and 360-degree feedback. Upward feedback = a performance appraisal process for managers that includes subordinates; evaluations. The 360-degree feedback process is a special case of upward feedback. x 360-degree feedback systems = a performance appraisal system for managers that includes evaluations from a wide range of persons who interact with the manager. The process includes self- evaluations as well as evaluations from the manager’s boss , subordinates, peers, and customers. Advantages: o collecting multiple perspectives of managers’ performance; o allowing employees to compare their own personal evaluations with the views of others; o formalizing communications about behaviors and skills ratings between employees and their internal and external customers. Disadvantages: o time demands placed on the raters to complete the evaluations; o managers seeking to identify and punish (=straffen) raters who provided negative information; o need to have facilitator help interpret results; o companies’ failure to provide ways that managers can act on the feedback they receive. Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door Emilie Spaan ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|1748678
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Job experiences = the relationships, problems, demands, tasks, and other features that employees face in their job. One concern in the use of demanding job experiences for employee development is whether they are viewed as positive or negative stressors. x Positive Æ challenge employees to stimulate learning. x Negative Æ create high levels of harmful stress for employees exposed (=blootstellen) to them. Besides the development that occurs when a team is formed, employees can further develop their skills by switching work roles within the team. Various ways that job experiences can be used for employee development: x Enlarging the current job Job enlargement = adding challenges or new responsibilities to an employee’s current job. x Job rotation = the process of systematically moving a single individual from one job to another over the course of time. The job assignments may be in various functional areas of the company or movement may be between jobs in a single functional area or department. Advantages: o It helps employees gain an overall appreciation of the company’s goals. o It increases employees’ understanding of different company functions. o It develops a network of contacts. o It improves problem-solving and decision-making skills.
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