American Universities started to develop science departments (chemistry, botany, biology, zoology, etc.) - they were also starting to develop engineering Vanishing Frontier - by the 1870s the frontier was starting to vanish with development in the US A lot of people who were attending school and learning about science started to question whether this was right or wrong. George Perkins Marsh - Wrote Man and Nature 1864 - Earth as Modified by Human Action 1874 - His lesson is that the Roman Empire fell due to environmental reasons - looked at forest records - he set the tone for environmentalism Gifford Pinchot 1865-1947 → brought utilitarian conservation to the federal government and the world - he was affected by Marsh’s book “The first part of conservation is development” - Pinchot Pinchot - keeping the roots of our lives in the natural world - wise use of nature, not conserving it for its own sake - human actions = dire consequences for the world - we needed to solve the problems that industrialization were starting to cause - wanted to become a forester - National Forestry School - France - top student - Tenants of Forestry : leave an acre of woods uncut for every acre cut - replant what you cut - prevent forest fires “Colossus of development” - clear cutting forests, mining environmental issues, vanishing frontier, etc. 1890 U.S. Census Report - no more frontier! Every part of the US had been explored Forest Reserve Act of 1891 - this was passed in partly as a response to the census report - allowed the President to proclaim areas of forest reserves 13 million acres added between 1891-92 Why were they created? Preservationists (John Muir) - preserving wild land Foresters: Pinchot - land had to be preserved as a source for lumber - prevent forest fires National Forestry Commission - 1896 - purpose was to make recommendations about the reserves, their purpose, if they should keep them, etc. - botanists and scientists + Gifford Pinchot Pinchot adored Muir .... but Pinchot was a forester and Muir was a preservationist - he believed the forests had to be used or they would be abolished 21 million acres added to the system. Forest Management Act 1897 - forest reserves were opened up to commercial uses - lumbering, livestock grazing and mining - government regulation - public ownership and could not be sold up to private interests - Pinchot essentially wrote the law - this model of forestry was learned in Europe
Progressivism - response to the ending of the Frontier, rise of big business - the US was moving toward becoming a huge industrial nation - rise of big business was marked by monopolists and big barons, political corruption, “the gilded age” 150 million acres were added to the reserves from 1901 to 1909 - it took Roosevelt, who was very
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- Summer '19
- Wilderness, Gifford Pinchot, Forest, Pinchot, Yosemite National Park, Muir