18. Regulation of Na+ and K+ a.No large reservoirs like calcium in bone. b.Key is altering rate of reabsorption of water, Na+ and K+ from the urine. c.Regulate absorption of water, sodium and potassium with kidney d.Pituitary, too much salt, make ADH to absorb more water from kidney e.Heart with ANP, too high sodium, to secrete more sodium 19. Na and Ka.Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – increases reabsorption of water in kidney. b.Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) – secreted from atria of heart to decrease sodiumreabsorption in kidney. c.Adrenal function- less aldosterone tells kidney to get rid of more salt 20. Na and Ka.Aldosterone from the adrenal glands increases sodium reabsorption in kidney. 21. Endocrine disruptors a.Chemicals derived from industrial waste that resemble estrogen enough to bind to estrogen receptors. b.In our environment, producing a lot of weird chemicals with hormonal characteristics c.Some resemble estrogen and bind to receptor for estrogens i.Xenoestrogens!! Foreign estrogensii.In juvenile organism, this could speed up or make early sexual maturationd.Decrease in number of functional germ cells. i.Some mess up sexual reproductions, can reduce fertility and damage populations e.Feminization of fish. i.Starting in the egg stage, the development of the eggs is not necessarily controlled by sex chromosomes, affected by chemicals and stuff, these estrogen like things trigger female characteristics ii.Some fish switch from male to female – triggered abnormally 1.Usually only if missing females 22. Hormonal responses to stress a.Adrenal glands i.Inner adrenal medulla secretes amine hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine. ii.Fight-or-flight reactions. 23. Melatonin and Biorhythms a.Many processes are controlled by biological clocks b.Melatonin detects light and dark c.The pineal gland in the brain, located in the brain, secretes melatonin at particular times i.This interacts to control biorhythms ii.Internal clocks as well that works with this iii.People take melatonin – there is a certain time when you take the melatonin that is supposed to synchronize clock to the proper biorhythm
d.Light/dark cycles control release of melatonin. e.Relate to biological rhythms, especially with reproduction.11-1-191.Neurons and Signaling a.Picture of a squid b.In nervous systems- have neurons themselvesc.In simplest organisms – ganglia (like a mini brain) i.Clusters of neurons d.Most animals have a brain for processing information and interpreting things e.There are a few animals with weird nervous systems i.Giant neurons with giant axons ii.In squids2.Information Processing a.Information comes in, interpreted by the brain, some response goes out b.Various sensors in the body for a variety of stimulusc.Sensory information to brain, brain integrates (decipher and decide how to respond) , muscles move in response to sensor information in this case d.In many animals, two parts to system – central and peripheral nervous system i.Central is brain and sc ii.