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I mucous cells produce mucus to protect stomach wall

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i.Mucous cells– produce mucus toprotect stomach wall from harsh acidsii.Chief cells– produce pepsinogen, ainactive protein digesting enzymeiii.Parietal cells– produce HCLiv.G cells– produce hormone gastrinwhich stimulates gastric juice productionand smooth muscle contractione.Small Intestines -extends from the pyloric sphincter to theileocecal valvei. Three regions:1.Duodenum– first part (10 in.)2.Jejunum –middle (8 ft.)3.Ileum– last part, joins the large intestines (12 ft.)ii.Main function is chemical digestion and absorption ofnutrients
170iii. Surface area is increased by:1.Plicae circulares– circular ridges in the mucosa andsubmucosa2.Villi– finger-like projections of the mucosa, containscapilaries and lacteal3.Microvilli– tiny projections of the epithelial cellsplasma membraneiv.Crypts of Lieberkuhn – intestinal crypts in the Duodenum atthe base of the villiv. Duodenum1. Begins at the pyloric sphincter and curves around thehead of the pancreas2. Responsible for majority of the chemical digestion3.Hepatopancreatic ampullaempties bile from theliver and digestive enzymes from the pancreas4. Brunner’s glands – found in the submucosa andsecrete alkaline mucus into the lumen to neutrilize theacid chymevi. Jejunum1. Responsible for the majority of nutrient absorptionvii. Illeum1. Contains numerous peyer’s patches in thesubmucosa2. Joins the large intestines at theileocecal valvef. LargeIntestinesi.Extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus and frames thesmall intestines
171ii.Functions:1. Absorb remaining water, electrolytes, vitamin K and B2. Eliminated indigestible food from the bodyiii.Regions:1.Cecum– first sac like part2.Appendix– hangs from the cecum3.Ascending colon– travels up the right side4.Transverse colon– begins at hepatic flexure, travelsacross the cavity5.Descending– begins at splenic flexure, travels downthe left side6.Sigmoid– s-shaped portion, travels posteriorly intothepelvis7.Rectum– anterior to the sacrum and coccyx8.Anal canal– last 3cm of the rectum, opens to theexteriora. Internal involuntary sphincter – smooth muscleb. External voluntary sphincter – skeletal muscleiv. Histology of the large intestines1. Simple columnar with numerous goblet cells2. Rectum is stratified squamous3. Lacks villi4. Taenia coli – incomplete longitudinal muscularisexterna forms three thin bands5. Haustra – sac like pouches
172g. Liveri. Location:1. Inferior to the diaphragm2. Enclosed by the rib cage3. Majority of the liver is found in the RUQii. Amazing Facts About the Liver1. Weight = ~3 pounds2. 1.5 liters of blood pass through the liver per minute3. Produces 500 – 1000 mL of bile per day4. Has over 200 different functionsiii. Functions:1. Stores excess nutrients and releases them whenneeded (glucoseglycogen)2. Produces bile to aid in the digestion of fats3. Detoxifies drugs and metabolites4. Produces plasma proteinsiv. Structure:1. Liver hasfour lobes:a. Right and left lobes are separated by thefalciform and coronary ligamentsb. Caudate lobe – runs parallel to the sulcus forthe IVCc. Quadrate lobe – adjacent to the gallbladder

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
inferior vena cava, Veins of the torso

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