. money to be made by moving into the interior - agricultural land, timber, furs, etc. 2.Freedom → people who lived in colonies were subjects of the English Crown - after the revolution people were free - Americans were free to do what they wanted - no king or ruler - trappings of feudalism were removed 3.Independence → pioneers fiercely pursued independence - people pushing westwardaway from the Atlantic coast wanted to be independent of civilization, institutions and government Hillbillies and hillbilly folklore - fell trees, built log cabins, burned forests to get trees out of the way, made moonshine whiskey, feuded w/ neighbors, wanted to be away from civilizations -Legacy of wasteful agricultural practices - they would wear out the land and the resources, and then would move on to another place - resources were believed to be inexhaustible James Fenimore Cooper - Wasting Ways of the American Pioneers -“Next Ridge Syndrome”- just move to the next ridge - American attitude towards the environment throughout the 1800s going into the 1900s Louisiana Purchase 1803 - $15 million from France, doubling the size of the US - Jefferson saw this as a way to continue American westward expansion 1800s - rapid development following the Industrial Revolution Response to Industrialization: Preservation Movement -Broad Arrow Policy- Quaker policy that was initiated in 1681 → said that for every 4 acres of forest that you cut down, you have to leave 1 acre of forest un-cut → forest conservation - scientific management of the forest (conserve fresh water, leaves trees to propagate, saves habitats, etc.) - the British government like this because they believed it would leave big trees for their ship masts. -Anticipation of what we will see with forestry in the 1800s. Muir, Thoreau, Wordsworth - all three are participating in the cultural tradition and contributing to the myth of the mountain as cathedral Sublime: rare places on earth where one had more chance than elsewhere to glimpse the face of God On mountaintops, chasms, waterfalls - Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon Religious experience - symbols of God’s presence on Earth Wilderness was also being tamed - settlements, tourists, domestication of the sublime The modern environmental movement is a grandchild of romanticism and post-frontier ideology He loved the wilderness and wanted to be a part of it - called the Sierra’s the “range of light” - wild nature reflected God - nature was a mirror reflecting the creator He pioneered the idea of mountaineering (backpacking)
Key Parts of the Utilitarian Conservation Movement: Big extractive industries in the West - US became a hugeindustrial power -
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Wilderness, Gifford Pinchot, Forest, Pinchot, Yosemite National Park, Muir