Eagerly consume other ppl’s goods and practices & re-confirm that their culture was superior ○ Discovered a set of universal laws that applied to everyone, everywhere around the world; universal natural laws instead of christian belief in divine intervention ○ Schools still church run, punishment of radical thinkers, censorship, arbitrary taxation ○ Ease of new books & ideas lead ppl to challenge established beliefs and institutional and undermine royal authority
○ Encyclopedie- comprehensive work of learning of the French enlightenment ● Creating Hybrid Cultures in the Americas ○ Mingling between colonizers, native peoples, and African slaves produce hybrid cultures → imbalanced as Europeans dominate with germs and Christianity to civilize them(coerce them into believing) ○ Scarcity of European women = mixing with Amerindians and Europeans ○ Creoles(ppl born in the americas) increasingly resent control of peninsulares (ppl born in Europe living in America) ○ Heavily influenced by Britain & enlightenment bc get a lot of goods & books from there ● Influence of European Culture in Oceania ○ Travel further than had before to invade these unexplored areas ○ Australia previously untouched, but anglicized after they take over ○ Take their raw materials, kill them with disease ○ Turn it into prison colony → reform them through “enlightened” dreams Ch. 15 Reording the World ● Revolutionary Transformations and New Languages of Freedom ○ Ppl began to dislike mercantilist system → want free trade, laissez faire → lead to more efficiency ○ more literate → call for state to adopt more just practices ○ General demand for popular sovereignty; power with the people & nation states!(nationalism) ○ Still exploit slaves, deny equality for women, restrict colonial economies, etc. ● Political Reorderings ○ The North American War of Independence (1776-1783) ■ Locke: social contract ■ Representative democracy, arguments over slavery ○ French Revolution (1789-1799) ■ Louis XVI help American revolution → debt → raise taxes so call together Estates General ■ Third Estate declare themselves to be a National Assembly raid Bastille for arms & abolish privileges of nobility and clergy for a new era of liberty, equality, and fraternity ■ Reign of Terror → justified in terms of defending the Republic ■ Napoleon Bonaparte take over and put security and order ahead of social reform, eased religious tensions ○ The Napoleonic Era ■ Military campaigns to build vast empire & found national traditions and borders → harder to take over ● Laid foundation for Nationalist Strife ○ Revolution in Saint-Domingue (Haiti) ■ Colony that broke away from France → revolution from the bottom rungs of the social ladder: slaves ■ Blacks outnumber whites 25:2 & sugar plantations exceptionally brutal ■ Slaves fought French forces → 1793 Abolish slavery; former slaves take control of island ■ Free country ruled by former slaves sent shudders across Western Hemisphere ○
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