4 Sphenoethmoidal Recess The space at the lateral wall between the sphenoid

4 sphenoethmoidal recess the space at the lateral

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4. Sphenoethmoidal Recess The space at the lateral wall between the sphenoid above and superior concha below Receives the opening of the sphenoidal sinus III. PARANASAL SINUSES cavities found in the interior of the maxilla, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones lined with mucoperiosteum and filled with air communicate with the nasal cavity through relatively small apertures maxillary and sphenoidal sinuses are present in a rudimentary form at birth; they enlarge appreciably after the eighth year and become fully formed in adolescence mucus produced by the mucous membrane is moved into the nose by ciliary action of the columnar cells Drainage of the mucus is also achieved by the siphon action created during the blowing of the nose sinuses act as resonators to the voice sinuses also reduce the weight of the skull When the apertures of the sinuses are blocked or they become filled with fluid, the quality of the voice is markedly changed. A. MAXILLARY SINUSES Located within the body of maxilla Largest of the paranasal sinuses and its opening (maxillary ostium) communicates with the middle meatus via hiatus semilunaris Roof is formed by the floor of the orbits and the floor is related with the roots of the premolars and molars B. FRONTAL SINUSES Contained within the frontal bone and separated by a bony septum; extends upwards above the medial end of the eyebrow and backward into the medial part of the roof of the orbit
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S 1 T 20 4 of 6 Nose, Paranasal Sinuses, Pharynx Gross Human Structural Biology Left and right frontal sinuses are rarely of equal size and the septum is not usually on the median plane Drains through a frontonasal duct into the infundibulum C. SPHENOIDAL SINUSES Lie within the body of the sphenoid but may extend to the wings Each sinus opens into the sphenoethmoidal recess above the superior chonchae D. ETHMOIDAL SINUSES Small invaginations of the mucus membrane of the middle and superior meatus into the ethmoid bone between the nasal cavity and the orbit Composed of anterior, middle, and posterior sinuses o Anterior group drains into middle meatus via the infundibulum o Middle group opens into the middle meatus on/above the bulla ethmoidalis (swelling on the superior border of the hiatus semilunaris) o Posterior group directly opens into the superior meatus IV. PHARYNX A. ATTACHMENTS OF THE PHARYNX Superiorly attached to the base of the skull On each side, from above going downward: o Medial pterygoid lamina o Pterygomandibular raphe A strong, narrow ligamentous band, extending from the pterygoid annulus to the posterior part of the mylohyoid line Acts as a tendinous band of union between the buccinator and the superior constrictor muscle o Side of the tongue o Medial side of mandible o Hyoid bone o Thyroid cartilage o Cricoid cartilage B. PHARYNGEAL WALL formed by: o Buccopharyngeal fascia o Pharyngeal muscles o Pharyngobasilar fascia o Submucous coat o Mucous membrane 1. Buccopharyngeal Fascia The coating of fibrous tissues that covers both the buccinator and the pharyngeal muscle 2. Pharyngeal Muscles Composed of three constrictor (external) muscles and the
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