REFLECTIVE JOURNAL 10 patient centered ethical protocol. Moral courage is hence pertinent if nurses and physicians are to adhere to the correct and right guidelines when medication errors transpire. Such moral courage can be boosted by having healthcare facilities adhere to laid out protocols and procedures of medical errors that transpire in practice and availing emotional support to clinicians and physicians who commit such errors in their effort to administer medication or in attempts to save patient lives. I further learned that nurses and physicians are mandated to disclose medication errors based on the AMA code of Medical Ethics, the American College of Physician’s Ethics Manual, the Consequentialist Theory and the Deontological Theory or Principalism . As Kim, Myung, Eo & Chang (2017) posits, the AMA code of Medical Ethics stipulates that when a patient perceives or encounters positive health based intricacies that may have accrued from the clinician or physicians judgement or actions, the healthcare provider is ethically obligated to inform the client of all the potential facts to facilitate comprehension of the occurrence so that the client can initiate an informed choice in respect to the future medical attention or care. According to the American College of Physicians protocols, doctors have a role of disclosing to their clients details regarding mishaps of judgement or procedures inflicted during care if such data is in alignment with the clients well-being. Based on the consequential theory, any behavior or action that seeks to maximize on the overall goodness is highly reinforced. Such reinforcement demands the specification of harms inflicted to any specified moral group such as the clients, clinicians and the physicians involved. Lastly, the theory of Principalism holds that some patient rights may not be subject to violation even if it would lead to the overall good. The principles involved in this proponent entails the
REFLECTIVE JOURNAL 11 patients right to autonomy (which reinforces their freedom to select personal choices of interventions and to give informed consent in any undertaking in healthcare) and the principle of non-maleficence which reinforces the responsibility of not inducing harm to others as stipulated by the Primum non nocere maxim. There are certain limitations that restrict the disclosure of medical mishaps. Ahmed, Saada, Jones & Al-Hamid (2019) opine that high expectations that label the medical profession as “infallible” is one key barrier to error disclosure. Physicians and nurses further feel a sense of fear of losing their status and reputation, high chances of having limited professional progress, fear of losing authority as a medical practitioner and fear of being sued in negligence based litigation. Ahmed et al. (2019) opines that physicians may choose not to disclose for fear of losing a potential future prospective client or in fear that such disclosure may result in patient pain, suffering, loss of trust and guilt. Guillod (2014) posits that the solution to medication errors is to reinforce individual
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- Winter '16