3. Principle of Utility The right action is the one that produces the greatest balance of pleasure over pain, or happiness over unhappiness, for everyone affected by that action. Animals count too, since they can feel pleasure and pain. Future generations count, since our actions can have far reaching consequences Non-Consequentialist Theories 1. Deontology (The Ethics of Duty)-Immanuel Kant Morality is duty-based Duty is something you are required to do whether you want to or not. o Duties are obligations that must be fulfilled no matter the consequences. The Will is our capacity to make decisions and act on them. The Good Will acts out of duty. The Good Will is the only thing that is absolutely good. o All other things we think of as good – talents, dispositions, etc. can be used for good OR bad Doing one’s duty for Kant is following the Categorical Imperative. o Categorical means without exception o He contrasts this with hypothetical which means depending on the circumstances. This is consequentialism. o Imperative means command. But the Categorical Imperative is a command or rule that has no exceptions. 2. Categorical Imperative – First Formulation o Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law. (universalizability principle) A maxim is a general rule. Ask yourself what general rule would describe what you are thinking about doing. If you cannot will that it should be ok for everyone to do it, then you can’t make an exception for yourself or for any other reason. illogical: You can’t at the same time believe that it is ok to steal from a store and at the same time want there to be stores. If everyone thought it was ok to steal from stores, stores couldn’t exist. 3. Categorical Imperative – Second Formulation o Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only. Don’t use people. Don’t exploit or manipulate them. Respect human beings because they can think for themselves and have an independent will.
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