2 main approaches 1 easy to socialize and hard and

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2 main approaches: (1) Easy to socialize and hard and slow to warm up. Easy - 40% Difficult (or “active”) -10% Slow-to-warm up – 15% Early appearance indicates the actions of biological mechanisms. Chess & Thomas, 1984 Thursday, April 7, 2011
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19 most researched. 4 longitudinal studies where they test children at 4 months old and track for 20 years. High and low reactive infants. (very different and obvious types!). 20% upset by the slightest stimulation while another 20% reacted passively. high and low reactive. the high reactive children were upset by anything new. these differences in temperament continued as the child grew. low reactive grew curious as she aged and continued to be un-phased by new situations. for high reactive kids they are scared by new places and became a shy child. What role do parents have in shaping how these children develop? research with monkey families: some monkeys are shy and others are outgoing. They switched parents and children. Placed shy children with outgoing parents. Found that no matter what the genetic predisposition is, the behavior of the mother makes the biggest difference. PArenting and environment play a stronger role. VIDEO Thursday, April 7, 2011
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The most carefully studied temperamental variable: Shyness- Inhibition Behavioral inhibition: marked timidity in the face of new events & people 15% inhibited/15% sociable ( Bulient: happy go lucky kids) Psycho-physiological indicators of extreme reactivity. Heart rate Pupil dilation Morning cortisol levels Neuropsychological indicators fMRI’s show that amygdala of reactive kids are over-reactive. amygdala notices novelty and response to threat. reactive kids are hyper responsive. 20 Thursday, April 7, 2011
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19 The New York Longitudinal Study 6 year study of 141 children; Parental style can mitigate the effects of difficult temperament: Calm Firm Patient Consistent Thursday, April 7, 2011
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21 Describe follow-up studies Will inhibited kids grow up to be introverted and anxious adults? this category of highly reactive infants does not map on to one trait dimension, it maps on to both E and N (vulnerability to worry and anxiety); this is a defining feature of these kids (they are more worried at 5/6, afraid of dark, don’t like parties). A lot of anxiety there that would go with N but also see more isolated behavior (low E). This reactive dimension tracks to both anxiety and introversion. Reactive kids will have normal lives. In fact a large number of them will move towards the middle and not be identifiable as highly reactive. by 1st grade 1/3 of them or no longer identifiable in their behavior as highly reactive. However if you present them with novel stimuli and measure physiology, they are reacting internally! If you follow up the same group at age 15; another 1/3 are no longer classifiable as reactive based on behavior. 2/3 by age of 15 have outgrown the behavior of inhibited person. physiology remains. What are they thinking and feeling internally? suggestion that the do feel a lot of anxiety but they work with their anxiety and benefit from parents who encourage them to face their anxieties and face their fears. Physiology remains/behavior adapts Parenting makes a difference Note results in Japan vs US. Thursday, April 7, 2011
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22 Examples of adaptations Kagan’s shy 6 year old grand-daughter. “Make believe I don’t know you; I have to practice not being shy.” K says he was this type as a child. He overcame it by trying to make sure to do things he was afraid of and pushing himself to do things. unfortunate thing is the psychophysiological things are still there and the level of anxiety is different than other kids. My examples: studying places; resolutions; Thursday, April 7, 2011
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