-if yes, can continue to seek explanation for behaviour-Distinctiveness:-does the individual behave differently in different situations?-yessituational (driven by the situation)-nodispositional (driven by his disposition) *tendency to act in a specified way-Consensus:-do others behave similarly in this situation?-yessituational (everyone similarly influenced)-nodispositional (each individual’s disposition)---Module: The Fundamental Attribution Error-Subtopic: Fundamental Attribution Error-often overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate role of situational factors-ex: get cut off; “bad driver!”making assumptions: bad driver, aggressive person rather than considering stress and challenges of heavy traffic-Fundamental Attribution Error:tendency to overvalue dispositionalfactors for the observed
behavioursof other while under-valuing situationalfactors-place of the FAE in social psychology-Subtopic: That Actor/Observer Effect-FAEassume behaviour of others is due primarily to dispositional factors-Actor Observer Effect:consider the situational factors for your own behaviour-more vulnerable to making FAE when determining causes of behaviour of others rather than own behaviour (more aware of self and therefore more aware of situational influences)-Ex/ I drive risky because I was late, but she drives risky bc she thinks shes the best driver ever… notice the personal reason is situational while theirs is dispositional. -Subtopic: Cultural Differences-FAE widely observes in Western society, but not necessarily universal finding (influenced by different cultures)-how likely American and Indian children and adults were to attribute negative behaviour: dispositional or situational?-attributions made of function of age -striking difference in two older groups-data suggests cultural differences in the fundamental attribution error
-American: more likely to make FAE-Chinese: less likely to make FAE-FAE is diminished in collectivist societies where there is less focus in relationships and roles within society-American Olympic gold medal winnersmore likely to attribute gold winning performance to their determination and talent-Japanese Olympic gold medal winnermore likely to attribute gold winning performance to the success of the coaching team and organization therefore with collectivist you increase situational factors resbonsible. -Subtopic: Self-Serving Bias-tendency to perceive yourself favourably-Above Average Effect:identify dispositional causes for successes, but situational causes for failures, giving an exaggerated view of abilities-positive events: actors will select dispositional explanations”I’m brilliant,” whereas observer”Test was easy.”-negative events: actors will select situational explanations“Test was impossible,” whereas observers“Individual isn’t smart enough.”-bias in perception may lead to thinking that one is above average on many things important to
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- Winter '14
- Classical Conditioning, Intelligence quotient