The state claimed its ideas its mode of operating its

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The state claimed ‘its ideas, its mode of operating, its very existence’ were acts of treason o All charges were eventually dropped and/or sentences overturned Township revolts: - School boycotts continued after the 1976 uprising, leading to a state of permanent disruption in schooling for black students o Some students left the country to be trained as liberation fighters in neighbouring countries while other joined the growing numbers of unemployed youths - In response to the opening of the Tricameral Parliament in Cape Town in September 1984: o Protest demonstrations started o Marches o Stayaways o School boycotts o These spread to black townships across the country, often in response to increases in municipal rates and bus fees that the population couldn’t afford o Resulted in increased levels of retaliation by the police 24
- March 1985: o After numerous altercations with stone-throwing protesters in townships, the police were issued with heavy ammunition, leading to the death of six young men o Their funeral could not be held on the Sunday (funerals on weekends and public holidays had been banned in an attempt to curb political activity) o Funeral was scheduled for 21 st March 1985 police belatedly realised this was the anniversary of the Sharpeville Massacre applied for another court order that ruled funerals could only be held on Sundays o On 21 March 1985, a crowd gathered in the Langa Township and marched towards the white residential area o Although the march was peaceful, police opened fire, wounding 27 and killing 35 people - Daily protests became the norm, with students and activists gathering to throw stones or set tyres alight on public roads - Trojan horse massacre (15 th October 1985) o South African Railways truck drove up and down a road in Athlone, Cape Town o After it had passed twice, a stone was thrown at it o The truck stopped and armed policeman came out and opened fire on the students, killing 3 youths and injuring several others o Despite the incident being filmed by a CBS TV crew, the private prosecution ended with acquittal for the policemen involved State of emergency: - An increasing number of violent and non-violent acts of resistance led to State President P.W. Botha declaring a partial State of Emergency on 21 st July 1985 in 36 magisterial districts o Gave the government power to impose curfews, ban organisations and restrict or ban meetings, detain ‘undesirables’ indefinitely without disclosing names and preventing media from reporting on the Emergency - The UDF turned to consumer boycotts as a non-violent protest o Consumer boycotts of white-owned shops quickly spread throughout the country a they proved to be ‘an effective weapon’ - By 1985, the UDF, representing more than 700 organisations and over 2 million members, was a powerful force in demanding the immediate end to apartheid - In August 1985, Allan Boesak organised a march to Pollsmoor Prison in Cape Town, where Nelson Mandela was held at the time o Although non-violent, the police retaliated with force, killing 28 people o

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