The science of keeping lines moving is known as queue management And for Whole

The science of keeping lines moving is known as queue

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customers are finding that their wait times are shorter than expected. The science of keeping lines moving is known as queue management . And for Whole Foods, this quantitative technique has translated into strong sales at its Manhattan stores. Chapter 2 5
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The quantitative approach contributes directly to management decision making in the areas of planning and control. For instance, when managers make budgeting, queuing, scheduling, quality control, and similar decisions, they typically rely on quantitative techniques. Specialized software has made the use of these techniques less intimidating for managers, although many still feel anxious about using them. OUTCOME 2.4 BEHAVIORAL APPROACH As we know, managers get things done by working with people. This explains why some writers have chosen to look at management by focusing on an organization’s people. The field of study that researches the actions (behavior) of people at work is called organizational behavior (OB) . Much of what managers do today when managing people—motivating, leading, building trust, working with a team, managing conflict, and so forth—has come out of OB research. EARLY ADVOCATES OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Although a number of individuals in the early twentieth century recognized the importance of people to an organization’s success, four stand out as early advocates of the OB approach: Robert Owen, Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett, and Chester Barnard. Their contributions were varied and distinct, yet all believed that people were the most important asset of the organization and should be managed accordingly. Their ideas provided the foundation for such management practices as employee selection procedures, motivation programs, and work teams. Exhibit 2–6 summarizes their most important ideas. THE HAWTHORNE STUDIES Without question, the most important contribution to the OB field came out of the Hawthorne Studies, a series of studies conducted at the Western Electric Company Works in Cicero, Illinois. These studies, which started in 1924, were initially designed by Western Electric industrial engineers as a scientific management experiment. They wanted to examine the effect of various lighting levels on worker productivity. As with any other good scientific experiment, control and experimental groups were set up, with the experimental group being exposed to various lighting intensities, and the control group working under a constant intensity. If you were the industrial engineers in charge of this experiment, what would you have expected to happen? It’s logical to think that individual output in the experimental group would be directly related to the intensity of the light. However, they found that as the level of light was increased in the experimental group, output for both groups increased. Then, much to the surprise of the engineers, as the light level was decreased in the experimental group, productivity continued to increase in both groups. In fact, a productivity decrease was observed in the experimental group only when the level of light was reduced to that of a moonlit night. What would explain these
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