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Customers are finding that their wait times are

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customers are finding that their wait times are shorter than expected. The science of keepinglines moving is known asqueue management. And for Whole Foods, this quantitative techniquehas translated into strong sales at its Manhattan stores.Chapter 25
The quantitative approach contributes directly to management decision making in theareas of planning and control. For instance, when managers make budgeting, queuing,scheduling, quality control, and similar decisions, they typically rely on quantitative techniques.Specialized software has made the use of these techniques less intimidating for managers,although many still feel anxious about using them.OUTCOME 2.4BEHAVIORAL APPROACHAs we know, managers get things done by working with people. This explains why some writershave chosen to look at management by focusing on an organization’s people. The field of studythat researches the actions (behavior) of people at work is calledorganizational behavior (OB).Much of what managers do today when managing people—motivating, leading, building trust,working with a team, managing conflict, and so forth—has come out of OB research.EARLY ADVOCATES OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAlthough a number of individuals in the early twentieth century recognized the importance ofpeople to an organization’s success, four stand out as early advocates of the OB approach:Robert Owen, Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett, and Chester Barnard. Their contributionswere varied and distinct, yet all believed that people were the most important asset of theorganization and should be managed accordingly. Their ideas provided the foundation for suchmanagement practices as employee selection procedures, motivation programs, and work teams.Exhibit 2–6 summarizes their most important ideas.THE HAWTHORNE STUDIESWithout question, the most important contribution to the OB field came out of theHawthorneStudies,a series of studies conducted at the Western Electric Company Works in Cicero,Illinois. These studies, which started in 1924, were initially designed by Western Electricindustrial engineers as a scientific management experiment. They wanted to examine the effectof various lighting levels on worker productivity. As with any other good scientific experiment,control and experimental groups were set up, with the experimental group being exposed tovarious lighting intensities, and the control group working under a constant intensity. If you werethe industrial engineers in charge of this experiment, what would you have expected to happen?It’s logical to think that individual output in the experimental group would be directly related tothe intensity of the light. However, they found that as the level of light was increased in theexperimental group, output for both groups increased. Then, much to the surprise of theengineers, as the light level was decreased in the experimental group, productivity continued toincrease in both groups. In fact, a productivity decrease was observed in the experimental group

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Term
Spring
Professor
Franq
Tags
Management, The Wealth of Nations, scientific management, Frederick Winslow Taylor

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