Fernandez-Cornejo 2014 (USDA pesticide use report).pdf

If neither usda data nor proprietary data are

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when USDA data are not available. If neither USDA data nor proprietary data are available for a specific year, crop, State, and active ingredient, estimates are made based on application rates (e.g., pounds of a.i. per acre) from contiguous years and planted acres reported by USDA (see appendix table 2.1 for a list of main sources). ERS did not have access to the proprietary data needed to esti- mate pesticide quantities beyond 2008 using this method. The 21 (7 major and 14 minor) crops included in this report —apples, barley, corn, cotton, grape- fruit, grapes, lemons, lettuce, peaches, peanuts, pears, pecans, fall potatoes, oranges, rice, sorghum, soybeans, sugarcane, sweet corn, tomatoes, and wheat—account, on average, for 72 percent of the total conventional pesticide use in U.S. agriculture (including all crops) as estimated by EPA from 1964 through 2007 (EPA, 1999, 2011). Additional information is included in Appendix 2. This report also contains charts showing trends in the share of acreages treated with major pesti- cide types for cotton, corn, soybeans, wheat, and potatoes to provide insight into factors influencing trends in pesticide quantities. These charts only include published NASS estimates and linear inter- polations between published estimates for years when NASS estimates were not available, because the estimates were difficult to obtain from the proprietary data. In addition to data described above, the study used pesticide expenditure data covering all U.S. agriculture developed for annual farm income accounts (USDA/ERS, 2010b). Additionally, a set of physical characteristics was obtained for nearly 200 of the active ingredients (appendix table 2.2) used in corn, cotton, sorghum, and soybean production (Wauchope et al., 1992; Kellogg et al., 2002) to illustrate the estimation of quality-adjusted indices for pesticide prices and quantities for four major crops. 3 This report discusses conventional pesticides, defined by EPA as “chemicals or other substances developed and produced primarily or only for use as pesticides” (EPA, 2011). Conventional pesti- cides exclude chemicals “that are produced and marketed mostly for other purposes (i.e. multi-use chemicals).” Notably, this report excludes sulfur, petroleum distillate products, sulfuric acid, and hydrated lime. This report maintains consistency with previous ERS reports and comparability of these 1960-2008 estimates with the EPA 1964-2007 agricultural pesticide use estimates. 4 (Unlike this report, which focuses on crop-specific pesticide use, EPA reports estimates of pesticide use for the whole agricultural sector.) Previous ERS pesticide use reports either separated sulfur and petroleum use estimates from conventional pesticides, or did not report their use; ERS summaries of national pesticide use surveys for 1964, 1966, 1971, and 1976 separated sulfur and petroleum use from conventional pesticide use, while the 1982 summary did not report their use.
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Christopher Reinemann
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