Lack of efficient transportation communication links c Pockets of resistance 2

Lack of efficient transportation communication links

This preview shows page 29 - 32 out of 36 pages.

Lack of efficient transportation, communication linksc.Pockets of resistance2.Practical governancea.All Spanish lands belonged to king b.Council of Indiesdirected viceroys(see map of viceroyalties) in New Spain and Peru, who were aided by audienciasc.Governors were responsible to viceroys, advised by local councilsd.Most taxes collected by Indian chiefs
3.Political structure existed mainly to support Spain's commercial interests4.Flota Systema.A fleet of commercial ships, heavily guarded, would sail yearly from Spain to specific, authorized American portsb.Areas farther to the south or on the Pacific coast received goods only after they had been unloaded at an authorized portc.Ships were loaded with silver, gold; wintered in Caribbean; then returned to Spaind.It was illegal to trade outside of the systemi.Spanish colonists couldn't trade with each other or develop a shipping industryii.Foreign merchants could not sell to Spanish areasColonial Brazil and SlaveryA.Brazil--Portugal in the New World1.Portugal gained Brazil in accordance with Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)2.Spain absorbed Portugal (1580-1640), but Portuguese administered Brazil3.Natives were nomadic instead of centralized in empires4.Sugar cane production profitable, but declined after soil exhaustion in late 17th c.a.Grown on large estates, with African slave labor5.French, Dutch made incursions on sparsely populated Brazil6.Portuguese found natural alliance with British7.Precious metals discovered in Brazil as sugar production waned -- gold, diamonds-- economic activity shifted toward the south8.Gold mining gave Portugal unexpected wealth9.Brazil didn't need to be controlled as closely as Spanish landsa.Attitudes toward the mother country thus may have been less hostileb.Portuguese allowed more local autonomyFrench and British Colonies in North America A.The Shifting Commercial Revolution 1.With decline of Iberian states, northern states emerged, led by Dutch, then French and British 2.New activity stemmed from commercial revolution a.More products, foreign trade, bullion, new risk-taking managers sparked growth b.Spain, Portugal lacked structure to absorb precious metals, which flowed north 3.European markets swamped by new products (silks, furs, ivory, carpets), new foods (potatoes, peanuts, maize, tomatoes) a.Spices, sugar, coffee, tobacco entered market
b.Imported gold, silver flooded into Europe c.Prices rose rapidly in 16th, 17th centuries 4.Economic power shared by Italians, Germans, Dutch merchants, moneylenders a.North European capitalism flourished b.Joint stock companiesformed c.Agriculture practices, technology changed B.The Dutch Empire 1.By 1650 Dutch dominated in south Asia, Atlantica.Commercial empire, pragmatic, avoided conquest b.Navy ousted Spanish, Portuguese, took over holdings in Africa c.Engaged in slave trade d.Developed holdings in Brazil e.Transmitted sugar planting to West Indies 2.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture