o Not answerable - What is answerable there is pesticide poisoning around the world → WHO estimates 3 million pesticide poisonings worldwide every year with 22000 deaths, most of which are intentional (used a means of suicide .... )
TOMAZOS WINTER 2020 CHEM 181 25 Video 4 - - Pesticide Use o 1979 → 1.46 billion pounds o Now → 1.23 billion pounds o Has decreased significantly - Why is this? - Herbicides: o Some of the herbicides being used now are far more potent, so need less. Application rate of teaspoons per acre. Old ones you needed more. o Low toxicity b/c it interacts with an enzyme not found in people (found in weed) - S-Metolachlor: o Can exist in enantiomers (mirror images) o One more enantiomers is far more adapt to kill weeds than other, by using only one of those, can use less dose and cut down on side effects → 17 million pounds less use per year than racemic metolachlor. - Collapse Disorder in bees --> they are disappearing - Neonicotinoids: o Those have been linked with collapse disorder o Bees being eliminated in Europe - Natural Pesticides: o Coffee plant: attacked by a fungus, leaf doesn’t take that kind of an attack without doing anything, releases its own chemical for protection o Over 1000 compounds isolated from coffee --> caffeic acid, benzene, styrene, formaldehyde, furfural (these are known as carcinogens) o We ingest them...we consume about 1.5 grams of natural pesticides a day which is 10000 times more than the synthetic pesticides that make it in our body o 99.99% of pesticides in the environment are natural o Human body does not distinguish between natural and synthetic, handle them the same way - Nature provides us with large variety of natural pesticides and we can't produce all the food in the world without using agrochemicals. - It is possible to have organic products and natural products - "Natural" is ambiguous, not really have a definition. - Organic → no pesticides, no fertilizers, no genetically modified components o Organic: Why do people want it? ▪ People want it for what it does not contain (pesticide residues) ▪ For what it does contain (more nutrients) ▪ Environmental Benefits (don’t affect fish, go into rivers, etc) - Is Organic Really Organic? o Can the customer know for sure that something that is labelled organic is really grown in that way. o Spotty Inspection (sometimes fraud in this area) o Misconception of elimination of pesticides...Is organic pesticide free?? Nope...already registered in agriculture...it can be organic if it occurs naturally (ex like copper sulfate).
TOMAZOS WINTER 2020 CHEM 181 26 o Organic can spray their fields with this bacterium that will kill their pests (interferes with enzymes that insects have). o But if gene is removed from this bacterium, and put into the crop then crop gets genetically modified .... So no more it is organic. - Organic Pesticides are not differentiated from Synthetic Pesticides process .... either approved or not approved doesn't matter how it’s used. - Apples: o Can have up to 36 pesticides o Very often, this idea is used by some organization implying that biting into an o apple you might bite into 36 pesticides...not the case...only some are in it o
- Spring '11
- Silent Spring, Food coloring, Sucralose, E number, Food additive