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●In life, the Social Contract requires people to behave according to the needs and wants of others. ●Eyes, ears, and other bodily organs can distract one from the attainment of truth and knowledge. RATIONALE The Phaedo is a conversation between Socrates and his students about death. It takes place just before his execution. During this conversation, Socrates explains why philosophers should not fear death, which he defines as the end of the life of the body, but not of the soul. Socrates views the body as an impediment to the acquisition of wisdom and truth. Therefore, a philosopher may be able to find answers after death that cannot be found during life. CONCEPT The Phaedo: The Death of Socrates 15 For Plato and his Doctrine of Forms, a person can determine whether an act is courageous if he or she can __________. ●explain what courage means in the real world ●clearly understand the value of courage ●accurately describe the Form of Courage ●imagine an unambiguously courageous action RATIONALE
According to Plato, the Forms are the basis of our knowledge of reality. All worldly objects participate in (i.e., imitate) their corresponding Form that exists in Platonic Heaven. We can determine whether an act is courageous if we know, and can describe, the Form of Courage. CONCEPT Applying Plato's Metaphysics 16 While I have lived in my home, my rent has increased every year. My salary has remained the same for three years. Next year, I will probably be in a better financial situation. Evaluate the argument and select the option that describes it. ●Deductive, valid, sound ●Deductive, invalid, unsound ●Inductive, weak, uncogent ●Inductive, strong, cogent RATIONALE Because the inferential claim is of less-than-logical certainty, and is about probability, this is an inductive argument. It is a weak argument because the conclusion isn't probable if the premises are true. It is also an uncogent argument because an argument must be strong to be cogent. CONCEPT Evaluating an Argument in Action
17 Read the following statement by Socrates: “In questions of just and unjust, fair and foul, good and evil, which are the subjects of our present consultation, ought we to follow the opinion of the many and to fear them; or the opinion of the one man who has understanding?” Extract Socrates' argument from this text and choose the sentence that accurately reflects it. ●Absolute justice can only be achieved when the state agrees with the opinion of the masses. ●Non-experts have opinions, but the man who is an expert in a field has true knowledge. ●He who has experienced the administration of justice will do as the majority commands him to do. ●Any man who cares about ethics and wisdom has an obligation to listen to himself over others. RATIONALE In this selection from the Crito, Socrates argues that we should consult experts (who have "understanding," or knowledge) when we seek wisdom, and not the majority (who have only opinion).