4 In terms of the rate of expansion of income per head India is now at the top

4 in terms of the rate of expansion of income per

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4. In terms of the rate of expansion of income per head, India is now at the top of this group (as it is of most groups of countries in the world). But in most other respects, India's rank has worsened, in fact quite sharply in many cases. Overall, only one country in South Asia (Sri Lanka) clearly had better social indicators than India in 1990, but now India looks second worst, ahead of only Pakistan . 5. The comparative perspectives in South Asia tend to be commonly overlooked in development studies, especially in India. 6. Yet there is a great deal to learn from looking around us within South Asia . Many other policies and achievements in neighbouring countries merit attention from Indian planners — and the Indian public generally. Notwithstanding its enormous size and rapid economic growth compared with its neighbours, India may have much to learn from them. 9 Downloaded by Vicky Gupta ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|3929542
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BANGLADESH'S PROGRESS AND THE ROLE OF WOMEN 1. Bangladesh is still one of the poorest countries in the world, and large sections of its population continue to lack many of the bare essentials of good living. Still, some particular features of the Bangladeshi experience are of special relevance to India. 2. The roots of Bangladesh's social achievements are not entirely transparent, and deserve much greater scrutiny than they have received so far. However, some likely clues are immediately worth noting. Perhaps the most important clue is a pattern of sustained positive change in gender relations. 3. As Table 3-5 shows, many gender-related indicators are now much better in Bangladesh than in India. a. For instance, women's participation rate in the workforce is almost twice as high in Bangladesh as in India (57% and 29%, respectively). 4. This, along with greater female literacy and education, has led to Bangladesh making remarkable strides towards gender equality in elementary education, so much so that school participation rates and literacy rates of Bangladeshi girls are now higher than those of boys, in contrast with India where a substantial gender bias (against girls) 10 Downloaded by Vicky Gupta ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|3929542
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persists. Indeed, Bangladesh is now one of the few countries in the world where the number of girls exceeds the number of boys in school. 5. Even the share of women in Parliament, while much below one half in both countries, is higher in Bangladesh than in India. Table 3.5: Gender-related Indicators in India and Bangladesh Indi a Banglade sh Female labour force participation rate aged 15+ 2010 (%) 29 57 Female-male ratio in the population 2011 (females per 1000 males) All ages 940 997 Age 0-6 years 914 972 Ratio of female to male death rates 2009 Age 0-1 1.01 0.89 Age 1-4 1.55 1.25 Ratio of female to male school enrolment 2010 (%) Primary 100 104 11 Downloaded by Vicky Gupta ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|3929542
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Secondary 92 113 Literacy rate age 15-24 years 2010 (%) Female 74 78 Male 88 75 Proportion of adults (age 25+) with secondary education 2010 (%) Women 27 31 Men 50 39 Women's share of seats in national Parliament 2011 (%) 11 20 Total fertility rate 2011 (children per woman) 2.6 2.2
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