On the paternal x chromosome 24 4 points hormones are

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on the paternal X chromosome 24. (4 points) Hormones are essential in the development of gonad-associated duct structures. With this in mind, fill in the blanks below: (A) Estrogen promotes development of the ______________________ into the uterus and oviducts. (B) Testosterone promotes male development by blocking the degeneration of the ____________________________.
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E-55, Exam 3-2009: Name Page 7 of 9 25. (7 points) Female versus male primary sex determination in mammals appears to follows a core set of ‘rules.’ Based on insight from mouse experiments discussed in lecture, indicate the predicted female or male gonad status of humans in the situations listed below: Indicate male or female for each setting: (A) A person with a karyotype of XXXXXY would be __________, and a person with XO (a single X and no second sex chromosome) would be __________. (B) An XX individual with a copy of the SRY gene would be __________. (C) An XY individual missing Sox9, but with normal SRY would be __________. (D) An XX individual with normal copies (n=2) of Sox9 would be ___________. (E) An XY individual with two copies of the DAX gene would be __________. ( F) An XX individual who develops in a tropical environment would be ___________. 26. (4 points) The direct alteration of the differentiation status of cells (by triggering transdifferentiation) has the potential to eliminate problems in human organ replacement. Name/list two appealing benefits that this type of experiment offers: 1 2 27. (3 points) Regeneration is widely held to recapitulate (i.e. repeat) modes of embryonic development. In 1-2 sentences, identify and then describe what key cellular aspect of limb regeneration in a salamander is reminiscent/shows a close parallel to vertebrate limb development?
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E-55, Exam 3-2009: Name Page 8 of 9 28. (6 points) Hemangioblasts are one of several cell populations speculated to represent the embryological origin of hematopoietic stem cells in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, your graduate advisor urges you to perform a fate-mapping experiment that lets you track cells during development. Address how could you perform your study by answering the following questions. A. How would you label hemangioblast cells with a stable transgenic approach? Name an animal model that you could do your experiment in. B. If hemangioblast cells do give rise to HSCs, list the anatomical location(s) where you should look to find your labeled cells. Recall you are trying to address the developmental origin of HSCs. C. If hemangioblast cells do not give rise to HSCs, in which specific lineages would you expect to see your label? 29. (4 points) Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) raise fewer ethical issues than human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Why is this true?
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E-55, Exam 3-2009: Name Page 9 of 9 30. (12 points) P-granules in C. elegans and polar granules in Drosophila share a number of features that regulate primordial germ cells (PGCs).
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