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Excessive fluid retention can occur anywhere in the

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: excessive fluid retention (can occur anywhere in the body) and is rated on a scale of +1 to +3, shifting of fluid into extravascular space Electrolytes : molecular substances that dissociate in solution into their electrically charged ions (measured in mEq/L)...think cations and anions Erythema : redness of the skin, caused by hyperemia of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin “IV” Filter : filter for hyperalignmentation, lipids, blood products, and any drugs that may require a filter FVE (fluid volume excess)- caused by retention of water and sodium. Excess fluid level in intravascular space and increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure. Causes: GI losses (diarrhea, vomiting), loss of plasma or whole blood such as with burns, excessive perspiration, fever, decreased intake fluid,use of diuretics FVD ( fluid volume deficit)- caused by excess fluid loss or inadequate fluid replacement that already exists. Caused by: congestive heart failure, renal failure, cirrhosis of liver, increased serum aldosterone and steroid levels, excessive sodium intake. Hyperalignmentation : solutions with very high osmolarity (15-30% dextrose) Hypertonic: Concentration of the cell is less than outside of the cell. Water moves out of the cell to try to even out the concentration. D10W, D20W, D50W, D5LR (5% dextrose in lactated ringer’s), D5NS(5% dextrose in normal saline), D5 1/2NS (5% dextrose in normal saline) Hypotonic: the cell has a higher concentration in it than in the area surrounding it. Water moves into the cell to equal out concentration. 0.45% NaCl (1/2 normal saline), 0.225% NaCl (1/4 normal saline) Isotonic: The cell has an equal proportion of concentration with the area surrounding. Water continually flows in and out to keep concentration even. 0.9% NaCl (normal saline), Lactated Ringer’s, D5W I &O/Daily Weight : the BEST indication of fluid retention is monitoring the patient’s weight on a day to day basis...I think we all know what intake and output is :/ KVO: K eep V ein O pen (rate: 20 ml /hr for adults) Phlebitis : inflammation of a vein, usually in the legs S/S: pain, edema, erythema, and increased skin temperature over the vein, sometimes redness traveling along path of vein PICC (Peripherally inserted central catheter): long, thin tube that is inserted through a vein in the
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Skills Test 3 arm. The catheter is threaded through the arm vein until it reaches a larger vein close to the heart. TPN : total parenteral nutrition (DO NOT mix anything in this tube) - a nutritionally adequate hypertonic solution cosnsisting of glucose, other nutrients, and electrolytes administered through an indwelling or central iv catheter. Transfusion reaction : antigen-antibody reaction and can range from a mild response to a severe anaphylactic shock and which can be life threatening Trendelenburg Position : position where the foot of the bed/stretcher is raised at a 45 degree angle with the head lower than the hips/legs; It is sometimes used in pelvic surgery to displace the abdominal organs upward, out of the pelvis, or to increase the blood flow to the brain in hypotension and shock.
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