Georges benko asserts that individual liberty takes

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films cannot sequester repetition, directors establish their identity through originality. Georges Benko asserts that “individual liberty takes precedence over collective values” (Benko 7) in his book Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity, and although remakes intend to reference their
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original work, they are often critically justified if they take an innovative form of their own. Therefore, Van Sant’s Psycho not only dismisses the trend of a typical remake, it essentially takes no new angles, but rather updates the original with new filming technologies. Though Vince Vaughn and Anne Heche reprise the roles of Anthony Perkins and Janet Leigh with different mannerisms, Van Sant appears infatuated with revitalizing the past with nothing to contribute thematically beyond the shift in time period. Despite nearly no major adjustments to thematic quality, with Norman still presented as a socially awkward, isolated individual, indication on the remake’s purpose emerges through the small shifts in Van Sant’s focus make a noticeable difference. Though it may not qualify as a beaming work of postmodernism, it exhibits qualities that reflect the concept, allowing a slight separation from a remake intended on complete duplication. A definitive shift in Van Sant’s interpretation is the portrayal of sexuality in the primary characters. Where Norman Bates’ masculinity becomes readily apparent by the offscreen sounds of masturbation upon viewing Marion through his office peephole, Marion herself becomes much more secluded sexually. In Hitchcock’s original, the boundaries of sexuality on the screen were provoked by a bra-clad Janet Leigh to open the film and the near nudity of her death. Van Sant’s choice to nearly reverse Hitchcock’s ideology behind the characters’ sexual identities shows hints at a postmodernist approach, revealing the possibility that he believes Hitchcock misrepresented these characters in the original. In International Postmodernism: Theory and Literal Practice , James Peterson outlines the modes of
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