Finally john powers conflict genres and management

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Finally, John Powers' "Conflict Genres and Management Strategies During China's 'TenYears of Turmoil'" attempts to identify conflict genres and management patterns reflected inextant autobiographical materials regarding the Cultural Revolution from 1966-1976.Theanalyses show that seven conflict genres are predominant in this ten-year period: public strugglemeetings, direct confrontations, institutional interrogations, interpersonal confrontations amongurban/educated youth and rural/uneducated peasants, camp guards and the rusticating youth, and
Intercultural Communication Studies VII: 11997-8Chen and Starosta5residents' committees and the narrator's family (the last three genres are predominant in the secondphase of Cultural Revolution). Conflict management strategies often used in this phase includepersonal authority, classifications/categories/names, quotations or slogans based on Mao's words,signs, and narrative probability.The author concludes that the strategies of handling conflicts inthe Cultural Revolution era are still widely used in contemporary China.Determinants of Chinese Conflict Management and ResolutionAfter closely examining the eight articles included in this special issue, we can generate fourmajor factors that play an important role in the process of Chinese conflict management andresolution: harmony, inter-relation (guanxi), face (miantze), and power.Harmony is one of the primordial values of the Chinese culture. The Chinese considerharmony as the universal path which we all should pursue.Only when harmony is reached andprevails throughout heaven and earth can all things be nourished and flourish (Legge, 1955). Thepurpose of human communication is then to develop and keep a harmonious relationship in acontinuously transforming process of mutual dependency among interactants.Thus, harmony isthe end rather than the means of human communication.To the Chinese, conflicts are not treatedas problems of communication but rather as detractors from harmony. Human communication isnot a process in which we strive to direct the interaction to our own favor.Instead, it is a processin which we try to adapt and relocate ourselves in the dynamic process of interdependence andcooperation.To sincerely display a whole-hearted concern for the other is therefore a gateway toreach a harmonious relationship (Chen, 1994).As a result, aiming to establish a conflict freeinterpersonal and social relationship is the ultimate goal for Chinese interactions (Chen & Chung,1994).The Chinese practice of conflict prevention is maintained by the principle of li (propriety,rite).Li refers to norms and rules of proper behaviors in a social context. It is an external meansto achieve the ideal state of harmony by showing a feeling of respect or reverence to others (Chen& Xiao, 1993).Thus, in conflict situationsli shang wang lai(reciprocity) is primarily aprinciple of harmony rather than a materialistic principle of mutual benefit. It requires people toshow mutual responsibility in social interactions. In addition,shian li hou bin

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